Skip to main content

Full text of "Some Notes on the Ward of Aldgate and Its Ancient & Modern History: To ..."

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/ 

y~ j-u LA^ r [\.\o- 

3&arbar& College librarg 




Gurney Professor of History and Political 

sar. Under the houses at the 
scribed on page 15. 


HORNER CTobecconiat). HEAD (Confectioner). 

(Builders). YARD. 



on the 


and its 

Ancient & {Modern History. 

To C 0fnm etnorate the Election of 




of the City of London. 

Compiled by * 


Eden Fisher & Q omPy Ltd. 

Published by 





^AH^ 1 '^ 



hy kind permission 


The 'RJght Hon, JOH^i POUC^D, 
Lord {Mayor of London, 

Who was born in the Ward of Aldgate, iSjq, lived and traded in 
it all his life ; receiving the City's highest honor amidst the 
unanimous good wishes of his fellow Citizens. 

Members of the Corporation for the 
Ward of Aldgate. 


The Right Hon. JOHN POUND, 

Lord Mayor 1904-5. 


Pearse Morrison, Esq., 1878. 



THOS. G. BEATLEY, Esq., 1890 

M y J. G. HAMMOND, Esq., 1904 

JAMES MARRIAGE, Esq., 1892-1902 

JOHN LULHAM POUND, Esq., 1895 G - HAYSOM, Esq., 1904 


1, Fenchurch Buildings. 


{Photo by F. O. Devrreux, Hove. 

[Photo by London Stereoscopic Co., Ltd, 


The City of London is being rebuilt and remodelled so rapidly that, in 
a short time, it would seem all connection with the past and its interesting 
traditions will, to most of those who tread its pavements, be forgotten and lost* 
To collect in a concrete form some of the facts relating to the corner of the 
City known as Aldgate is the object of this Book* 

The information in the following pages is necessarily of a somewhat 
scrappy nature* being to some extent intended as descriptive matter to the 
illustrations* It has been gathered from many sources and from* it is believed* 
most of the writers who have dealt with the subject* Stow (a resident of 
Aldgate* by the way) is the sheet anchor for all who essay to write anything 
upon the subject of London's Local History* after him come several others* but 
none so complete or full of detail* 

In certain instances it has been found expedient to travel outside Aldgate 
Ward; it is hoped* however* that this will not lessen the interest in the Book* 

A work of this kind* however small* could not be accomplished without 
help; this* wherever asked* has been most readily granted by advice* information* 
loan of books* engravings or photographs* In this connection it is desired to 
acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Mr* Edward M* Borrajo of the Guildhall 
Library; also of Mr* H* Brodie Self and Mr* W. Smart* both of whom have 
made the study of Aldgate lore a hobby* Everyone interested in the subject should 
see the collection of water-colors of Aldgate by the latter gentleman; they are 
faithful pictures and beautifully executed* 

The Compiler has to acknowledge the assistance of his fellow Directors who 
placed the resources of their establishment at his disposal for the purpose of this 
little effort* and who rendered him much practical help* 

Thanks are also due to Mr* W, Mann Cross* C.C, the Rev* A* B« Beaven, 
M*A*» for data extracted from his book on the Aldermen of the City of London* 
Mr* Deputy J* G* White for extracts from his book The Churches and Chapels of 
Old London, Mr. Philip Norman* Treas* S*A«* Mr* Edwin Freshfield* Junr** M«A*» 
F*S«A** Mr* C« R« Rivington* the Rev* J* Miles* M*A** of St* Katherine Cree* 
The Proprietors of u The City Press*" Messrs* Dunn and Burdick* Churchwardens* 
and the Verger of St* Andrew Undershaft* Mr* Levine of Leadenhall Street* 
Mr* J. E* Sly* Messrs. Wiggins* Teape & Co** Messrs* Nash and Son* 
Messrs* Barham & Marriage* and many others* 

£ I 








NEWTON'S MAP OF LONDON (from the Guildhall Collection' 







Priory of Holy Trinity. 

St. Botolph, Aldgate. 

St. Katharine's Hospital. 

Abbey of Grace. 

Merchant Tailors' Alms Houses. 

Nunnery of St. Clair. 

St. Michael's, near Aldgate. 

St Katharine Cree Church. 

Beris Marks. 

The Papey. 

St. Augustine's Church. 



St. Mary-at'Axe Church. 
St. Andrew Undershaft. 
Burnt House. 
Widow Cornwallis*. 
Ironmongers' Hall. 
Allhallows Staining Church. 
Blanche Apleton Manor. 
St. Catharine Coleman. 
Northumberland House. 

28. House of Mount Joyes. 59. 

29. Saracen's Head Inn. 60. 

30. Well, Poor Jewry Lane. 64. 

31. Crouched Friars. ; 66. 

32. Allhallows Barking Church. ] 67. 
33* King's Chapel of Barking. 69. 
34- St. Glare's, Hart Street. 70. 

37. Petty Walls. 72. 

38. Trinity House, 73. 
45. Site of Roman Villa. 75* 

Langbourne Head. 

St. Gabriel (Fen Church). 

Lord Neyil's House. 

High Tower of Timber. 

Green Gate. 

Sir W. Bowyer*s House. 

Leaden Hall. 

Chapel in Leaden ball. 

King's Head. 

St. Helen's Nunnery. 






6. ST. GABRIEL'S CHURCH. In the middle of Fenchurch 

Slreet. Destroyed In Great Fire, not rebuilt. 



Cree Church Lane. 

9. ST. MARY CHURCH, St. Mary Axe. Parish was united 
with St. Andrew and Church demolished in 16th Century. 



A City so ancient that she seemed to have no beginning; and a City so honourable , 
that she ought to have no end." 


JN the middle ages the District of Aldgate was probably one of the 
most important in London, largely on account of its close 
proximity to the Tower, which still continued during Queen 
Elizabeth's reign to be a royal residence and attracted a number 
of the nobility and gentry to the neighbourhood; but chiefly because of the large 
establishment known as the Priory of Holy Trinity, which, up to the time of 
Henry VIIL, occupied a large part of the Ward, and as this, according to Stow, 
was "next to Westminster — the richest and largest in England/' and, according 
to Fuller's Church History, the "richest Priory in England" — it is easy to 
imagine that Aldgate was looked upon with a greater degree of reverence than 
it has been accustomed to of late years* 

Later on, after the Priory shared the fate of other Monastic Institutions 
under Henry VIIL* the Ward continued its connection with the nobility, and 
later became a favourite locality for the residences of many city magnates* 

Approaching the City from the East by the Whitechapel Road, in the 
present year of grace, it is difficult to imagine that the neighbourhood was once 
fields, farms and hedgerows, or that London was formerly a fortified city 
surrounded by embattled walls with gates constructed to withstand a siege, such it 
was, however, up to the time of the Great Fire — from a historical point of view 
not very long ago* 

Just within the walls, until 1531, stood the lofty Tower of the Priory 
Church of Holy Trinity, and around it the massive buildings appertaining to 
that establishment, on the right just outside the Gate was Hounds Ditch, part 
of the wide ditch constructed for defence purposes from Bishopsgate to the Tower, 
originally some 200 feet wide, in course of time it gradually became filled in, 
and as this part of the moat or ditch was used for the reception of refuse it is 
easy to understand how it received its name* 


Pennant thus describes it: — 

44 Formerly a filthy ditch; which took its name from being the place into which 
dead dogs, and ail manner of dirt was thrown* Into it, as worthy of no better sepulture, 
was thrown the noble Edrlc, the murderer of his master Edmund Ironside, after having been 
drawn by his heels from Baynard's Castle and tormented to death by burning torches* Here 
it was customery for pious people to walk, on purpose to relieve the bed-ridden, who lay on 
a ground floor, covered with a neat cloth, and with a pair of beads to shew to charitable 
passengers their helpless situation, and that they were incapable of doing more than pray 
for them." 

The Wall of London is so frequently mentioned by writers upon the 
subject of London, that an illustration of its elevation will be found interesting* 


THE WALL OF LONDON. The Gateway shewn la Aldersgate.— From Pennant's "London" 

Various pieces of the wall are still to be seen* There is a specimen which is 
here illustrated, just outside the Ward of Aldgate upon Tower Hill, next to the 
** George** Public House* 

We be- 
lieve there is 
another and 
still better 
standing in 
Barber's ware- 
houses in 
Cooper's Row, 
turning out of 
Friars* The 
walls* when 
perfect* are 
supposed to 
have been 22ft* 
and the towers 

[I'hoL*. C. Kemp, U.inor Park. 


40ft. high* 


The Gate of Aldgate was one of the four original and most important 
entrances to the city, and was rebuilt two or three times from the Romans 
onwards* According to the ancient maps and plans* it stood between Houndsditch 
and Duke Street* At the time of the 
Saxons it was so ruinous that it 
received the name of Oldgate* and by 
easy stages its present name has been 
arrived at* 

Near this gate* in the reign of 
Edward I** a turret was erected on the 
wall* which was converted into a 
hermitage and was represented at an 
inquisition before the King's Justices at 
the Tower* as being built four feet with' 
out the wall on the King's highway. 

In the fierce wars between King 
John and his Barons* the latter entered 
the City through this gate and com* 
mitted great ravages among the houses 
of the religious* they also repaired or 
rather rebuilt the gate with a deep 
well inside after the Norman manner ; 
it must then have been of great strength 
and massive proportions having two 

In 1374 the poet Chaucer lived in 
the apartments over the Gate* A lease 
granting him these premises is pre* 
served in the City Records* and later on the premises were assigned to the Lord 
Mayor's Carver: thus the Gate has given shelter to the apostles of both mind 
and matter* At the time of the Great Fire all the prisoners from the Poultry 
Compter were removed and locked up in these apartments* which were used as 
a charity school* 

In 1471 Falconbridge at the head of five thousand riotous people* attacked 
the City on this side* won the gate* and forced in a few of his forces* but a 
portcullis being let down they were entrapped and slain; the valiant Alderman 
of the Ward* Robert Bassett* and the Recorder* sallying forth defeated Falconbridge 
with great slaughter* (Evidently an Alderman's duties in these days of the 
20th century are of a more pacific* though we hear at times that they are of 
quite as dangerous a nature.) In 1606 the gate was taken down and a new 
one built in another style of architecture* and as proof of its antiquity* many 
Roman coins were found among the foundations* 

From an Engraving in Guildhall. 


There were two posterns (or passages for foot passengers), that on the 
south side was made at a much later date (1663) than the one on the north, 
consequently the old pictures shew the gate with one postern only* In the 
basement of Messrs* Wiggins, Teape & Co.'s premises is preserved a stone from 
the South Postern when the gate was demolished* and it is much to the 
credit of this old-established firm that they have gone to some trouble to 
preserve this relic of the past* (See illustration below.) 

The Gate, which was rebuilt in 1606, was finally removed in 1760 for city 
improvements and the widening of the thoroughfare. Mr* Mussell, with the true 
spirit of the antiquary, bought the remains and had them built in the front of 
his house, a stately mansion at Bethnal Green, which he appropriately named 

[Photo. C. Kemp, Manor Park, 


Aldgate House* There was on the south front a bas-relief carved from Wat 
Tyler's tree, an old oak which once grew on Bow Common, and which the 
Aldermen and Council had had carved to adorn the City Gate. An illustration 
of this interesting house is given on page 7* 

The Ward of Aldgate extends from Aldgate (*>., the immediate 
neighbourhood of the site of the Gate) to the eastern side of Lime Street and 
St. Mary Axe, which it includes, together with all the streets, &c, from Bevis 
Marks on the north to Tower Hill on the south, and thence to Ironmongers' 
Hall in Fenchurch Street. It was divided into four parishes — St. James', 
Duke's Place, St. Katherine Cree, St. Katherine Coleman and St. Andrew 

Undershaft; the two first were amalgamated in 1874 and the Church of 
St* James* demolished; the remains of the dead which were buried in the 
Churchyard were removed to the City of London Cemetery, Hford* The premises 
of Messrs* Horner & Sons* Mitre Square* now occupy the site* This Parish 
by the influence and protection of the Norfolk family* formerly enjoyed great 
privileges* not the least of which appears to have been the right of non~freemen 
and foreigners to open shops and carry on their trades in the parish* 

The District of Aldgate was largely occupied by its religious establishments* 
of which there were several* including the Nunnery in the Minories* the 
Monastery of the Crutched Friars, the Priory of the Holy Trinity of the 


Sff previous Page. 

Augustine order* and from about the time of Cromwell various Jewish Synagogues* 
The Priory stood upon the large piece of ground now enclosed within Duke 
Street* Bevis Marks* Bury Street* Cree Church Lane* Leadenhall Street and 
Aldgate* It was founded in 1108 by Queen Maud* consort of King Henry I* 
Norman was appointed by the Queen the first Prior* and a grant was made 
to him and the Canons* of the East Gate of the City called Ealdgate or Aldgate* 
and the Soke (*.£•, jurisdiction or ward) thereunto belonging* with all customs* &c* 
as then held by the Queen* and two'thirds of the revenues and rents of the 
City of Exeter* then estimated at £25 per annum* In addition Norman was 
the head of the Soke or Land anciently called Knighten Guild* since called 

Portsoken Ward (i.e., says Maitland. a franchise at the Gate), by which he 
became an Alderman of the City of London* When he associated with his 
brother Aldermen he assumed their robes, one Prior, however, having some 
conscientious scruples, appointed a Deputy as Alderman under him* Shortly 
after (about 1150) the Church of St. Botolph, Aldgate, was united with the 
Priory and annexed to the Holy Trinity Monastery, this was confirmed by the 
Charter of the King and a Bull of Pope Innocent II* 

We learn from Stow that one "Geoff ray de Glinton was a great helper 
therein and obtained that the Canons might enclose the way betwixt their 

Church and the wall of the city The Priors have sitten 

and ridden amongst the Aldermen of London* ♦ ♦ The Prior 

kept a most bountiful house of meat and drink for rich and poor as well within 
the house as at the gate, to all comers according to their estate/' Nowadays 
his callers and circle of friends in and around Aldgate would be extensive 
and peculiar* 

As time went on so many and vast were its endowments that the Priory 
became the most wealthy monastic establishment in the kingdom, which in all 
probability was the cause of its being the first Priory surrendered to and dissolved 
by Henry VIIL. who granted it to Sir Thomas Audley, then Speaker of the 
Parliament and afterwards Lord Chancellor; who, on coming into possession offered 
the Priory Church and steeple to whoever would pull it down: no person 
accepting the offer, it was demolished at his expense, and some of the material 
used for building the mansion afterwards erected on a portion of the site, in 
which he resided until his death in 1554. The bells were purchased by the 
parishes of Stepney and St. Stephen. Coleman Street. There was much in common 
between the King and • Audley. only four persons besides the necessary civic 
officials witnessed the beheading of Anne Boleyn. and Audley was one ; altogether 
he seems to have made himself very useful to his royal master and was rewarded 
accordingly. His daughter and heiress married Thomas. Duke of Norfolk, when 
the estate took the name of Duke's Place, which it retained until lately, although 
no traces of its former grandeur now remain; hence the reason for the special 
privileges this parish used to enjoy under the protection of the Norfolk family. 

The Duke lived here in great state. Pennant describes his entry into 
the City as follows: — 

44 In 1562, he rode through the city with his dutchess. to his residence here, attended 
by a hundred horse in his livery, with his gentlemen before him in coats guarded with 
velvet, preceded by four heralds* So respectable was the appearance of our ancient nobility." 

The Duke was beheaded on Tower Hill for complicity with the followers 
of Mary. Queen of Scots* 

The estate descended to his son. Thomas Howard. Earl of Suffolk, who 
sold it to the Mayor and Corporation of the City of London* 


Thomas, writing in 1830, says: — 

"In the time of Pennant only two arches of the Priory of the Holy Trinity remained, 
and it may be a satisfaction to some future antiquary to know that, in September, 1816, the 
site of the last gateway belonging to this ancient Monastery and Palace, and consequently its 
last visible vestige, was partly occupied by a newly-built house, and the passage rendered 
more convenient by the removal of a dwelling that crossed the gate, consisting of a central 
and two side arches of the pointed order leading towards Cree Church Lane* This gate, 
once perhaps the principal western entrance, for no reason that can now be assigned, 
was distinguished by the inhabitants of Duke's Place as the 'Thrum Gate."* 

The above-described gateway is illustrated below and was at the end of 
Cree Church Lane* 



ui.n Herat:*** rttuici #**& ttow T»i?tiTr 1.'^- 

ft f / /J ferf f + J V ,.,-V %M£ A IP 

A few unimportant traces of the Priory were found when the foundations 
were sunk of Messrs* Eden Fisher & Co/s factory in Mitre Street* 

But the last discovered remains were found in 1881 when the ground was 
excavated for the building of the block of premises now occupied by Messrs* 
Sands and McDougall, and other firms* in Mitre Street* This was an arch 
of which a description is given below* 

Mr* Philip Norman* in his paper read before the Society of Antiquaries, and 
published in their Proceedings March 17th, 1898, says* with reference to these 
remains : — 

"This Arch is, as far as I could judge without measurement, about 13 or 14 feet high 
from the crown to the present floor level:" to the eastward of it were found traces of 
Norman work. • • • 

44 Our Arch, which, as you see, is late work, and by no means elaborate, perhaps formed 
part of this building " (a dormitory belonging to the Priory). "The presence of Norman 

masonry by its side shows that the Priory from the first extended at any rate as far as this 
point in a southern direction*" In speaking further of the Priory itself* Mr. Norman says: 
" The Church, as it existed when the Priory was at its zenith, was no doubt a very large and 
splendid building. We get some slight knowledge of its later appearance from Van den 
Wyngaerde's view of London, where it is represented with a large central tower having 
pinnacles at the corners, the square-ended choir and south transept being flanked by turrets." 

"The site of the Priory Church was to the east or south-east of the present St. James's 
Place. Audley, when engaged in the work of destruction, left the south or great gate of the 
Priory, no doubt as a means of entrance to his own mansion. Though injured by a fire in 
1800 this gateway remained standing till 1815. There are views of it by J. T. Smith in 
Wilkinson s Londina Illustrate, and in the European Magazine for September, 1802. Another 

view in Wilkinson 
shows ancient remains 
to the south-east of St. 
James's Place, which 
were visible in 1815. 
Malcolm also did an 
engraving of one or 
two unmistakably 
Norman Arches, which 
had formed part of the 
Priory buildings. This 
was published in 1807, 
without any accom- 
panying note to explain 
their exact position." 

"Reference should be 
made to the Ordnance 
Survey" [Mr. Norman 
is doubtless alluding to 
a special survey shew- 
ing the proper location 
of ancient buildings in 
the City] "and to the 
map of Ralph Agas. 
To the west of where 
stood the Church, 
Duke's Place or Duke's 
Place Court (now St. 
James's Place) probably 
shows the site of the 
outer court of the Priory. 
From there a passage 
leads to what would 
have been the cloister 
on the south side of the 
Church ; in extent cer- 
tainly not less than 
100 feet square. Here 
also is a vacant space j 

it is now Mitre Square. To the west of this and south-west of the passage would be the 
Cellarer's buildings, and hereabout the Guest-house for superior guests, the highest being 


Engraved by Malcolm. Doubtless the one re/erred to by Mr. Xorman. 


From the Guildhall Collection. 

lodged with the Prior, whose 
house would have been, perhaps, 
to the east of the cloister. 
Passing again some distance to 
the west, one would come to the 
south gate referred to before, 
which stood between the present 
King Street and Cree Church 
Lane* To the right of this 
entrance was probably the 
inferior guest-house or casual 
ward* Mitre Street was non- 
existent till less than a century 
ago. Some distance to the right 
of the guest-house was the 
dining-hall or frater, shown 
perhaps by Agas. Further again 
to the right, and approaching 
the sight of our arch, may have 

been the dormitory 

Towards the eastern corner of 
Aldgate, where till a hundred 
years ago there was still con* 
siderable vacant space, were most 
likely placed the infirmary and 

According to Stow, Henry Fitz Ailwyn, first Mayor of London, who 
served twenty-four years, was buried in the Holy Trinity Priory, Aldgate* 

Whilst looking out of the windows of St* ^Catherine's Hall, or those of the 
private office of London's present Lord Mayor, one may be gazing upon the 
burial place of this the first of a long line of London's celebrities* 

Beneath the house at the south-east corner of Leadenhall Street (at its 
junction with Fenchurch Street, once the residence of the chronicler Stow 
and where the 
City Bank and 
Messrs* Eden 
Fisher & Co**s 
premises now 
stand) are the 
remains of an 
old building 
generally sup- 
posed to be 
St* Michael's 
"rather re* 
semble the 
vaults than 
the roof of a 
sacred edifice," aldgate high street, 1830. 

[to quote Henry Thomas] "as the shafts of the pillars are buried at least 15 feet in 
the earth. The present height is nearly 1 1 feet to the crown of the arch which 
would lead us justly to conclude that the streets, as they now are, have been 
elevated upwards of 25 feet in this vicinity since the erection of this pile/* 
[In this connection it may be mentioned that when the ground was excavated for 
building the present block these arches were uncovered, and a charge of 6d* was 
made to view them* Some were then removed whilst others were left below 
the present foundation.] To further quote Henry Thomas: "The remains 

consist of a series of vaulted roofing, formed by ribs springing from the 
capitals of the clustered columns, united at the centre by a key*stone of 
roses and grotesque faces, which are well executed; the walls are of square stone 
well cemented, and seem to bid defiance to the corroding tooth of time* The 
length is nearly fifty feet and the breadth ten feet,** which suggests that the 
writer was of opinion that the remains were those of the actual church and 
not the crypt as is claimed by some recent writers upon the subject* 

Mr. Timbs, in his Curiosities of London, says: — "A subterranean passage 
is said to conduct from the Tower to the ancient Chapel or Crypt of St* Michael 
at Aldgate, situated under the house ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ hard by Aldgate Pump* ♦ ♦ ♦ 
A means of approach from the street has existed ; and there are indications of two 
other passages, one said to have run to Duke's Place, and the other to the Tower. 

The abnormal elevation of the ground around this district is referred to in 

our description of St. Katherine Cree Church, and in still further illustration of 

this somewhat remarkable fact, the following quotation from Stow is of interest : — 

" Betwixt Billiter-lane and Lime Street was a frame of three fine houses, erected in 
1590, in a place which was before a large garden plot, enclosed from the high street with a 
brick wall, which wall being taken down, and digged deep for cellarage there was found, 
right under the said brick wall, another wall of stone, with a gate arched of stone, and gates 

of timber to be closed in the midst, towards the street Moreover, in that wall 

were square windows, with bars of yron, on either side the gate; this wall was under 
ground about two fathoms deep, as I then esteemed it, and seemeth to be the ruins of some 
house burned in the reign of King Stephen, when the fire began in the house of one Alewarde 
near London Stone, and consumed east to Aldgate; whereby it appeareth how greatly the 
ground of this citie hath been in that place raysed." 

The Chapel of St* Michael was the only religious edifice in the district 

which escaped the fate of the other religious houses at the dissolution, and when 

the conventual church was pulled down, became the only place to which the 

inhabitants could repair for the purpose of divine service* 

An interest' 

ing fact in 


with this cor^ 

n e r (now 

k no wn as 

Aldgate Pump) 

is that quoted 

by Stow, who 

relates of a 

cruel execu' 

t ion on a 

gibbet erected 

on the pave' 

ment before 

his house (as 

before stated 

he lived in a aldgate high street, 1904. '^ ho!o - l *«'»*• i, ""°' r " ,k - 

house at the corner), on the Bailiff of Rumford, in the time of Edward VI* 
At that time the law appears to have had but little delay and the punishment 
did not always seem to fit the crime. Of this incident Pennant writes: — 

44 In that age there were most barbarous and tyrannous punishments, by martial law, 
against all spreaders of rumors* The times were turbulent, but slighter penalties than 
death might have sufficed. The unhappy man, on the ladder, declared, in the presence of 
our historian (Stow) *That he knew not tor what offence he was brought to die, except for 
words by me spoken yesternight to Sir Stephen, curate and preacher of this parish ; which 
were these. He asked me, What news in the countreyj I answered, heavey news. Why, 
quoth he? It is sayd, quoth I, that many men bee up in Essex; but* thanks be to God, all 
is in good quiet about us. And this was all, as God be my judge. Upon these words of the 
prisoner, Sir Stephen to avoide the reproach of the people, left the citie, and never was heard 
of since among them to my knowledge/ n 


^H p^f 1 1 j^flBfl 


m W 3I 


Allen speaks of a pair of gallows being set up here for the hanging 
of some of the rioters on "Evil May*day," 151 7. 

It is evident, then, at that date the corner was an important spot, 
and probably executions may have been fairly frequent there at that time 
and earlier* 

James Howel writing in 1657, says: — "Then have ye on the south side of 
Fenne'church'Street, over against the wall or pump, amongst other fair and large 
builded houses, one that sometime belonged to the Prior of Monte Joves, or 
Monastarie Cornute, a Cell to Monte Joves beyond the Seas; in Essex it was 
the Priors Inne, when he repaired to this City/' 

The large open space in front of Aldgate Pump was known some 60 years 
ago as "the Five Lamps/' When gas was first introduced in the place of oil 
lamps, Aldgate was considered to have taken the palm for a perfect blaze of light, 
inasmuch as it had two gas lamps on either side the road between Jewry Street 
and the junction of Leadenhall and Fenchurch Streets and one on the Pump, 
hence the district was known for many years as "The Five Lamps/* 

A well or pump has stood near here from the earliest times, and it is not 
at all improbable that medicinal or holy virtues may have been claimed for the 
waters of St. Michael's Well, as it was called. It was evidently a spot well 
known, and is marked in some of the older maps and plans. Some 40 years ago 
the Pump was moved several feet further west, when the frontage of the property 
at the corner was set back to broaden the thoroughfare. 

The "Pump" may be described as the hub of the Ward of Aldgate. 
It is probably as well known as any institution or landmark in London. Of its 
usefulness there can be no doubt, the quality of the water is highly esteemed 

in the neigh' 
bourhood, and 
it is not un- 
common to 
hear it des* 
cribed as "the 
only spring 
water in the 
city/' but the 
New River 
has of late 
years been 
responsible for 
the brand. 

In the days 
of the coach 
Aldgate was a 
busy and im* 

f. . t/, W.irrirr i .nit. * 


being the main eastern 
artery of the City with, 
for those days, a con- 
venient width of 
thoroughfare. It had 
two important coaching 
houses, the *' Saracen's 
Head" and the 
"George/* The original 
sign from the former 
establishment still 
swings in Northumber- 
land Alley from a 
Public - house which 
took the name when 
the old coaching house 
was demolished ; the 
entrance to the yard 

still stands. George Yard was intact up to a few years back, and occupied 

the site of the present George Hotel* 

The row of houses depicted in the frontispiece was standing up to 1862, but 

has now nearly disappeared* They were amongst the best bits of " Old London " 

remaining; those on 

the right of the picture 

are the only two 

houses now left* The 

left-hand one of these is 

quite unique: the oak 

carving is said to be par- 

ticularly good work, and 

Mr* Smart opines that 

it ought to be preserved 

in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum, but he is 

an enthusiast* The 

pavement was much 

narrower than now, the 

frontage of the new 

houses having been set 

back several feet, and 

one could walk (so far 


did the eaves overhang) 

from George Yard to Jewry Street in wet weather without requiring an umbrella* 


Two ancient crypts stood beneath the old houses shown on the left of our 
frontispiece, the site of which is now occupied by Messrs* Nash & Son's premises* 
In 1876 The Graphic published two illustrations of these (see page 15)* The 
following is what it then said upon the subject : — 

44 The two singular crypts or vaults, of which wc give illustrations* are situated under 
the house of Mr. Sequeira* surgeon, at the junction of Aldgate Street and Jewry Street. They 
have been brought into notice especially at the present moment because they are to be destroyed 
in a week or two* as the whole group of ancient houses on this spot are to be rebuilt forthwith. 
These two remarkable crypts evidently date from the very commencement of the 14th century 
or the last years of the 13th century. They bear a striking resemblance to the vaulting of 
the aisles of Westminster Abbey, and are probably contemporary with the vaults at Westminster. 
The * ribs' are of Caen stone, and the * filling in' of chalk* or, as it is usually called, 'clunch.' 
The wall-ribs, however, and the arches to the blank arcade at the sides are of Forest 
of Dean stone* and what is remarkable is the fact that all the stone is very much 
decayed by the damp, but the chalk is as sharp as the day it was cut. A curious 
feature is to be noticed with regard to the wall arcade in the larger crypt, namely, 
that the two sides of these arches are struck from different centres, one side having the same 
radius as the vaulting rib, the other side being far more obtuse. The effect, as will be seen from 
our drawing, is not pleasing, and gives the appearance of the sketch being out of perspective. 
What these curious crypts originally were is very difficult to say, nor is it possible to ascertain 

whether they were originally connected. 
It is, however, very probable that they were 
portions of the buildings attached to the 
ancient gate which stood on this spot, if not 
of the gateway itself. We may add that 
Mr. S. T. Robinson, of 73t Leadenhall 
Street, who has paid some attention to 
these subjects, conjectures that these re- 
mains are part of the Aldgate, which* says 
Abbott in his * History of London/ was 
4 rebuilt after the manner of the Romans' 
in the early part of King John's reign." 

Mr* Norman appears to doubt 
if these remains are part of the Priory 
proper, but Mr* Brewer locates the 
site of the Prior's House as about 
this spot* 

In Jewry Street is situated a 
very interesting old house in the 
occupation of Messrs* Sly & Son* 
Mr* Sly claims it to be the oldest 
house now standing in Aldgate — 
certainly its appearance both inside 
and out is sufficiently antique to 
warrant one dating it back to the 
Flood if they like, and the back view 
is almost as interesting as the front* 
Mention must be made of the 
Aldgate Ward Schools in Mitre Street* 
which have become absorbed by the 
Cass foundation* These schools have 
seen the coming in and going out of generations of the inhabitants of Aldgate, 
and as a Teaching institution are of the past* The premises are up a gateway, 



and occupy one of those quiet nooks in the City which strikes the stranger with 
surprise for their apparent incongruity and almost reverence for their associations* 




- ■ ' "in 


T — 




feT* ^" J 

' ; - ' ' • 

■ ■ ■ » * * 

— — ^— •— '^^^ 


Ml Nil ,- ,™ 

Aldgate Ward Schools, with Fig Tree growing in front 

the Schools grows a fine healthy fig tree 

[Photo. C. Kemp, Manor Park. 

which bears fruit 

In front of the Schools grows a 

annually* Mr* Quinby* the Master* has filled the office for many years* 

On the occasion of the imprisonment of Sir Francis Burdett in the Tower of London in 1810 





Sarrrd fffAe Jfimory 

(Utuen £- Com M>4*r * 
wAo wasSA**l 

f>y ft At/?. Cyan/mm 
in fAe SAif* cf 

JencAurcA Sirred 

*Jc AMfoieCAurcA Yet 

for contempt of the House of Commons* a riot over the whole of the neigh 
bourhood of Aldgate took place between the populace and the military. 
Sir Francis was a popular hero; he was making a bold stand for free 
speech* being backed by Cobbett and his followers. At the above' 
mentioned riot there was considerable fighting in the streets* and a 
Mr. Thomas Ebrall* Citizen and Corn Meter* was shot by a Life Guards- 
man in Mr. Goodeve's shop in Fenchurch Street at the east corner of 
Mincing Lane. Mr. Ebrall's remains were interred in the Churchyard of 
St. Botolph* Aldgate, and a Memorial Stone erected* which was visible to 
passers by for many years* indeed until the widening of Houndsditch 
necessitated the re-arrangement of the Churchyard* when the stone was 
removed ; doubtless it is still in the Churchyard amongst many others. 

The accompanying representation of a tomb'Stone with the 
legend thereon has been used upon the stationery of the descendants 
of Mr. Goodeve for generations. 

A grandson of the above-mentioned Mr. Goodeve still carries on the same business 
at 74* Mark Lane. _^__^___^_^__ 

Leadenhall and Adjacent Streets. 

Stow, when speaking of the Ward, says: — 

44 The principle street of this Ward beginneth at Aldgate* stretching west to sometime 

a fair well* where now a pump is placed In the midway on the south side is 

Hart horn Alley, a way that goeth through into Fenchurch Street over against Northumberland 
House. Then have you the Bricklayers Hall and another alley called Sprinkle Alley* now 

— 1 7 _ 

named Sugar Loaf Alley* Then is there a {air house sometime belonging to a late dissolved 
Priory, but since possessed by Mistress Cornwallis, widow, and her heirs, by gift of Henry VIIL 
in reward for fine puddings by her made, wherewith she had presented him: such was the 
princely liberality of those times* Of later time Sir Nicholas Throgmorton was lodged there* 
—This house was afterwards known as the African House, the home of the African Company. 
Then somewhat more west is Belzeter's Lane, so called of the first builder and owner thereof, 
now corruptly called Billiter Lane." 

I»*V,.V~. tSi 

Domestic AHciiiTftrTmK 

:>*y% o:s ra> sorra MDt or I.fjdfmi^.i. STir.KT. 

i3**»S«rr*Ulii4in J TDlin -*<*ll. if' MAT* •rajBEPM Vf M*»TW* ii«» 

Dka-*:* i.iJrLT 1796 

This lane or street afterwards fell into disrepule, and it became a proverb 
to distinguish persons of dissolute habits as " bawdy beggars of Billiter Lane/* 

A short distance up Leadenhall Street was the entrance to the building 
known as Bricklayers' Hall (mentioned previously in an extract from Stow)* The 

fraternity of Tylers and Bricklayers is very 
ancient, yet they were not incorporated 
until the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who by 
her letters patent made them " Freemen of 
the mystery or art of Tylers and Brick" 
makers of London/* and this was the 
meeting'place of the Livery Company* This 
building was afterwards transformed into 
a Jews' Synagogue; later on it became 
Sussex Hall, then the City of London 
College and is now Sussex House* The 
Public-house on its right was known as 
the "Cock/* at the present time it is 
known as the " Sussex/ 9 Two illustrations 
of these and adjacent buildings are given* 
The following from Timbs* Romance of 




London in the "Chandos Classics** is of 
interest : — 

** Early in the last century there 
was living at 46, Leadenhall Street, 
where Africa House now stands, one 
Nathaniel Bentley, who acquired the 
name of * Dirty Dick/ In his early 
days he was called # the Beau of 
Leadenhall Street/ and might have been 
seen at public places of resort, dressed 
as a man of fashion. Whence the 
cause of his decadence into dirt? As 
the story goes, our young tradesman 
had made proposals of marriage to the 
daughter of a wealthy citizen, and had 
been accepted; but the lady died suddenly, 
and Bentley's hopes were wrecked* Time 
passed on, and our fashionable beau became the inveterate enemy of soap and 
towels; and hence * Dirty Dick** His house was equally neglected That 

/fit Kmiarkahlt DLHTTi V\"AH K J i O LWJ-: ///- Lr</r/mha// Strrrt 

From an Old Print. 


wonderful room, whose inside no mortal might brag to have viewed, and the 
circumstances in which it became so, are described in The <Dirty Old Man, 
a Lay of Leadenhall, by William Allingham, who notes that the verses accord 
with the accepted accounts of the man and his house x — 

That room— forty years since folks settled and deck'd it. 
The luncheon's prepared, and the guests are expected ; 
The handsome young host he is gallant and gay. 
For his love and her friends will be with him to-day. 

With solid and dainty the table is drest, [best, 

The wine beams its brightest, the flowers bloom their 
Yet the host need not smile, and no guests will appear, 
For his sweetheart is dead, as he shortly shall hear. 

Pull forty years since, turned the key in that door j 
'Tis a room deaf and dumb 'mid the city's uproar. 

Cup and platter are mask'd in thick layers of dust j 

The flowers fall'n to powder, the wines swathed in crust; 

A nosegay was laid before one special chair, 

And the faded blue ribbon that bound it lies there. 

"In February 1804, Bentley finally quitted his warehouse in Leadenhall 
Street, in which for forty years he had conducted business, among cobwebs and 
dust. He then took a house in Jewry Street, Aldgate, where he lived for three 
years; but his landlord refusing to renew the lease, he removed to Leonard Street, 
Shoreditch, taking with him a stock of spoiled goods, to the amount of £10,000. 
Here be was robbed of a considerable sum by a woman with whom he was 
imprudent enough to associate in his old age, and shortly died poor and 

There is another account of this curious character as follows : 
Reprinted from The European Magazine, Vol* 39, 1801* 

Who but has seen (if he can see at all), 

'Twixt Afdgate's well-known Pump and Leadenhall, 

A curious hardware shop in general full 

Of wares from Birmingham and Pontipool? 

Begrim'd with dirt behold it's ample front, 

With thirty years collected filth upon 't } 

See festoon'd cobwebs pendant o'er the door, 

While boxes, bales and trunks arc strewM around the 

Behold how whistling winds and driving rain [floor. 

Gain free admission at each broken pane. 

Save where the dingy tenant keeps them out 

With urn or tray, knife-case or dirty clout 1 

Here snuffers, waiters, patent-screws for corks t 

There castors, card-racks, cheese-trays, knives and 

Here empty cases pil'd in heaps on high ; [forks ! 

There packthread, papers, rope in wild disorder lie. 

O say, thou enemy to soap and towels 1 

Hast no compassion lurking in thy bowels? 

Think what the neighbours suffer by thy whim. 

Of keeping self and house in such a trim? 

The Officers of Health should view the scene. 

And put thy shop and thee in quarantine. 

Consider thou in summers' ardent heat, 

When various means are tried to cool the street, 

What must each decent neighbour suffer then. 
From noxious vapours issuing from thy den. 
When fell disease, with all her horrid train, 
Spreads her dark pinions o'er ill-fated Spain, 
That Britain may not witness such a scene. 
Behoves us doubly now to keep our dwellings clean. 
Say, if within the street where thou dost dwell 
Each house were kept exactly like thy cell ; 
O say, thou enemy to brooms and mops! 
How long thy neighbours could keep open shops. 
If, following thee in taste, each wretched elf, 
Unshav'd, unwash'd, and squalid like thyself. 
Resolved to live?— the answer's very plain. 
One year would be the utmost of their reign i 
Victims to filth, each vot'ry soon would fall, 
And one grand Jail distemper kill them all. i 
Persons there are, who say, thou hast been seen 
(Some years ago) with hands and face wash'd clean ; 
And would'st thou quit this most unseemly plan, 
Thou art ('tis said) a very comely man. 
Of polish'd language, partial to the fair, 
Then why not wash thy face and comb thy matted hair \ 
Clear from thy house accumulated dirt. 
New-paint the front and wear a cleaner shirt? 

* Nathaniel Bentley (son of a respectable hardwareman of that name, who 
died about 1770) resides at the corner of the Old Crown Tavern, Leadenhall 
Street, and is one of the most eccentric characters this day living* His father, 
who kept a carriage and lived in stile, gave him a good education* It is said, 

indeed, that he speaks not only French, but Italian, fluently* Previous to his 
father's death, and for several years after, he was called the Beau of Leadenhall 
Street, and was seen at all public places dressed as a Man of Fashion* He 
attended* in a most elegant suit* the Fete at Ranelagh given by the Spanish 
Ambassador on the King's recovery* His manners in company* in short* bespeak 
the Gentleman* yet his appearance in business is little short of disgusting* 

Many anecdotes are* of course* circulated respecting this phenomenon* and 
many of them* no doubt* illiberal and unfounded: but on the truth of the 
following circumstances we believe the reader may rely: — 

Mr* Bentley had not had a female servant in his house for more than 
twenty years past* 

When any of his windows are broken he places an old japanned waiter 
against the aperture, remarking that it is the cheapest way of repairing 
the damage* 

His answer to a gentleman who ventured to give him advice for correcting 
the slovenly appearance of his person was* "It is of no use* Sir; for if I wash 
my hands to-day they will be dirty again to-morrow*" 

It has been said that his neighbours* particularly those opposite to his 
house* have frequently offered to defray the expense of painting and white- 
washing the front: but this he constantly refuses; alleging that his shop is so 
well-known abroad by the denomination of the Dirty Warehouse* that it would 
ruin his trade with the Levant* etc* etc* 

His expense in coals must be very trifling; for, except when absolutely 
indispensable* he considers fires as extravagant : but as his feet from age or other 
reason are chilly in the winter season* he fills a box with straw and stands in it* 

He keeps no servant; but when he goes out in the day-time* he fastens 
the door and gives a poor woman a trifle to wait outside till his return* 

His favourite dress in his beauish days was blue and silver* chapeau 
de bras* etc* 

We believe the house will soon be pulled down to make way for India 
Warehouses* Mr* Bentley has had offers from the India Company who wish 
to purchase it: what his determination is has not transpired." 

Messrs* Hoe and Co* occupied these actual premises from about 1812* up to 
a few years ago* when they were rebuilt* 

Opposite is St* Katherine Cree Church, one of the few city churches which 
escaped the great fire, and one of the two London churches consecrated by the 
injudicious Archbishop Laud* It stands in the Cemetery of the old Priory and 
was rebuilt 1628* Inigo Jones is supposed to have designed it* The steeple 
which was standing at the same time as the Priory is probably the only part 
left of the earlier Church, which the authorities place at about 1503* 

The interior contains a remarkably fine 
Katherine wheel window of stained glass* in 
allusion to the legend of the patron saint* 

There is also a beautiful colored window, 
amongst others to the memory of Henry 
Pound, Esq,, the father of the present 
Lord Mayor* 

Saint Katherine is a Saint in the Church 
of England Calendar* From the extra- 
ordinary spirit of piety which sanctified her 
learning, she was chosen as the patroness 
and model of Christian philosophers* She 
is said to have been put on an engine of 
torture of four wheels joined together and 
stuck with sharp pointed spikes, by order of 
the Emperor Maxentius, in the fourth century, 
so that when the wheel moved her body might 
be torn to pieces* According to the legend 

In efo Church of ST Catherine cree 

OnaCand. <m# e/M* (MamUtAuns qfiA* C*$AefMM> £ •^4*/mJ*% JU&,*, 

rj ..k.i w _,^, /,■*+*** • ***** *-**•«- /•«-*— /— 


From an old Engraving in the Guildhall Collection. 


at the first stirring of this ternble 
engine the cords with which the 
martyr was tied were broken asunder 
by an angel, and the engine fell 
to pieces — hence the origin of the 
Katherine wheel. St. Katherine was 
esteemed the patron saint of spinsters* 
Sir Nicholas Throckmorton was 
buried in this Church ; he was an 
Ambassador to France in the 
time of Queen Elizabeth, and lived 
in a large house near the corner 
of Biliiter Street, of which previous 
mention has been made* His 
monument still remains and was 
preserved from the old Church* It 
represents the knight in complete 
armour, recumbent on a cushion, 
with his head bare and a ruff 
round his neck; under the head 
of the figure is a helmet, and at the 
foot is an Eagle* 

Sir Nicholas was the fourth 
son of Sir George Throck* 
morton* who was imprisoned in 
the Tower by Henry VIII for 
refusing to take the oath of 
supremacy* He distinguished 
himself at the battle of Pinkie 
under Edward VI and was 
knighted by the King, who 
made him undeMreasurer of 
the Mint* At Edward's death 
he was the first to send Mary 
word of her accession to the 
crown* His sympathies* how* 
ever* were with the cause of 
Princess Elizabeth* He was 
unjustly accused of taking part 
in Wyatt's rebellion and six 
days after Wyatt's execution 
was tried at the Guildhall for 
conspiracy to kill the Queen* 
The trial has been described as 
a ** specimen of intellectual 
energy/' Throckmorton's speech 
in his own defence shews him 
to have been a man of much 
learning and eloquence* 

Despite the efforts of power* 
ful enemies he escaped the scaf* 
fold and lived to be a valued and 
respected servant of his country* 

The ceiling of the Church 
is ornamented in plaster in 
a picturesque manner* with 
emblems and shields bearing the Arms of the first 16 City Companies* The 
pulpit and altar are said to be of cedar and very well carved in common with 
many of our City Churches ; the work is of a decidedly higher class than much 
of the modern carving* The font is of a very beautiful design of the Elizabethan 
type* and as it bears the arms of the Gayer family* Sir John probably presented 
it to the church about the time of its rebuilding in 1630* 

There are a few monuments in the church* some of note* including a 
brass to Sir John Gayer; the lettering thereon is full of interest* He was 

VHO **S [>F«EH«J I**** TNI nUr Win i"'fr*Tmr FAMmr Of tiAiE.1 ASP 

wa» B^.f it FLl* <;a A.-T1 UCAME *JUiiTT fflf TUTS OTY W tflWSI" I* 

fftjj Am T V *r> mjnm or Laniafr* <«*t 

itz i*w * msC^r fl* rat LEWT wit Ti Tn» > ' OHr*v, Ajm m Tire 
WpkjmiTTlT CfHV*£*V PT f [»HMW!G«sl.«*IHV A*li Pnt^TBC** OT L I*I*T1 

H.-Pi-tTAL i-)!*ik* Ann a LiDti* f vt;> n«jm.'* roroct* *» cwflmty, 

Tkis Cmr was cm-etui atAH.i*T*> *l Fwfli^ if rtt*f *c* R.^ra 

rnv* winttiw* nr«i vtmmtmm udttTWtf tsf XkTivtbiwjmi^ or 

J BE riTflfT^TAfri K!1 ■TOApl r *FT *l'WvHT C^finifl * MAftLID | HE ^rfcHITtrn 
TO »WU SCT"tf* T t^ THE Tu*rtd AT TV IWfU» * TBI FlIUJ JULCVr U <0*t 
*-*a !(.*- AND HFr<".-<4I.VE L1DET1T4TE BU fcNfF til 3 E '>*l<T4l. 

Hi PWHflttt t* THt* f»*l>H "D mwn «*«. 1* «s n*^i 1WVT" 
«• HZ W W 'I'Lli 1**» **& « WW 1" BmitQ *A A W~LI JiEpFtATH 

mm cki-kcnuf ?' htTHetuPE I'M* Lr.Ancxii *i_i fci 

THII MUWtUAL l«A9f -A3 M^ffHIMft rtlK ** HOl**M HT ftjft) 

['lXTw&A.Tr\ mm the f*MiLl tir «**rE* «cb *av rUirn* htjie prv f mm* t* 
T* <-rr*twn ortnKI* AptMDLflTlcrr r*>fl A^r* AFmn irtmfi "T nir — - 
CfrATUHTTll *Mi MA1Y VljrnE* Of TUT]* TtUVntMPUj 4MT>T"N 





INTERIOR OF ST. KATHERINE CREE. 1-rom an Old Painting 


'Lion Sermons/' he was spoken 

Lord Mayor as noted elsewhere* In one of the 
of as follows t — 

"A City Merchant in days when something more was meant than a speculator in the 
rise and fall of prices* a buyer and seller in the markets of the world* The old merchant 
venturers were men of daring and enterprise* men ready to encounter personal dangers in the 
pursuit of their calling* men who fitted out ships with costly cargoes of English manufacture* 
and, sailing in them themselves from port to port* sold or bartered their goods for foreign 
merchandise* often at great risks* whether of storm and tempest* or of fire and foe* On such 
a venture Sir John Gayer, hard on three centuries ago* set out for the East* to find himself* 
after many vicissitudes* in Arabia* where by some misadventure he became* on October 16th, 
separated from the caravan with which he journeyed* and* like his master* was left alone in 
a desert place 'with the wild beasts/ 'The lions roaring after their prey* seeking their meat 
from God/ were prowling round him* AH through that awful night he cast himself in 
earnest prayer upon the strong, watchful Providence of God; nor did he trust in vain. He 
who by His Angel shut the lions 9 mouths to save Daniel in the den* preserved him alive.' 

In a spirit of thankfulness 
he left provision in his will 
for a sermon to be annually 
preached, to be known as 
the "Lion Sermon/* 

A gateway formerly stood 
at the east end of the church 
opening into Leadenhall 
St** which was erected as an 
entrance to the burial ground 
in the rear* at the cost of 
one William Avenon* citizen 
and goldsmith in 1630; it has 
been described as "of a 
handsome character " (see 
illustration)* but skeletons 
do not as a rule lend them' 
selves to the beautiful: it 
was, however* interesting* 
A watch-house and room 
over were afterwards added* 
The whole was removed 
when the present entrance 
to St* Katherine's Hall was 
built* A portion of it has 
been very happily preserved 

by our present worthy Lord Mayor in the walls of St* Katherine's Hall, 

built under his patronage* 



There used to be an ornamental 
coping along the top of the Church 
front in Leadenhall Street and around 
the tower, as will be seen in the copy 
of the old print herewith (page 31). 
It added considerably to the beauty 
of the building, but was afterwards 
removed and a level coping substituted 

Mention is made elsewhere of 
the remarkable height to which the 
ground in the neighbourhood has been 
raised. In Stow's time the worshippers 
had to go down seven steps into the 

When it was rebuilt in 1630 
one of the pillars of the old Church 
was left projecting up the side of the 
tower, shewing where the arches had 
formerly sprung from, and it is believed 

Photo C. Ktiuf, Manor 


****** A*." U*M. <, T.lmmr /*••*#«> nam 

that much of the old church 
is still beneath the present 

In this connection 
Lambert says: — 

44 At the west end of 
this Church, adjoining to the 
steeple, stands a pillar of the 
old church as it was erected. 
This pillar, from the base to 
the chapiter upon which the 
arch was turned, being eighteen 
feet high, and but three feet 
to be seen above ground, 
shows the height to which 
the floor of the new church 
has been raised above that of 
the old." 

The celebrated court 
painter, Hans Holbein, is said 
to be buried in this church, but 
there is no monument to his 
memory. He died of the 


plague in 1554 at the Duke of Norfolk's house in the premises of the dissolved 
Priory* Some authorities claim St. Andrew Undershaft as his burial place* 

St* Katherine Cree has a collection of very interesting Communion and 
other plate* The following is the full description of it given by Mr* Edwin 
Freshfield, Jun*, in his interesting work on the City Church Plate : — 

[I'hoto. C. Kemp, U,inor I'ari. 

Two silveivgilt Tankards with the date mark (or 1630 < f and a maker's mark R.&, 
with a heart below in a shaped shield* inscribed with the weight and ** The gift of Sir Henry 
Martin to St. Katherin Creechurch 1631." 

Two silver-gilt Cups with the date mark for 1626 and a maker's mark R.B. • . . 
and inscribed with the weights. 

A silver~gilt Cup with the date mark for 1630 and the same maker's mark* and 
inscribed with the weight, and in pricked lettering "The gift of Jane Atkinson the wife cf 
Stephen Atkinson* 1630*" 

Two silver~gilt Patens on high feet or stems* inscribed with the weights. One has 
the date mark for 1626, and is inscribed **S. Katherin Creechurch 1626*" The other is like 
it, and has the same maker's mark* but no inscription. 

A silver-gilt Spoon inscribed with the weight and "S. Katherin Creechurch 1631." 
There are no marks on it* 

Four pewter Alms Dishes with scalloped rims and enamel centre bosses. One has 
a Tudor rose, another the Royal arms and "C.R*," another a sword and sceptre in saltire 
crowned with a rose, thistle and harp crowned and "C.R." The fourth has the Prince of 
Wales's ostrich feathers and "C.P." 

A Beadle's Staff with a silver head. The head is an oval medallion with a figure of 
S. Katharine in relief on both sides, surmounted by a diminutive Katharine~wheel* inscribed 
"James Fitch William Dobbins churchwardens 1796." 

A Wand of black ebony mounted with silver rings and a silver mitre on the end. 
inscribed "Joseph Williams George Fitch S. Katherine Cree 1817." 

Mr* Freshf ield does not mention the covers to the Cups ; they are somewhat 
unusual, and are used* if occasion requires* for handing round the bread* The 
Spoon was used for extracting flies or pieces of bread or dust from the wine 
when necessary* 

The pewter Alms Dishes (which are* as curiosities and specimens of 
pewter* of great value), were, in all probability* presented by Charles I* when 
Prince of Wales and King* and the whole Communion Service would be that used 


by Archbishop Laud at the consecration of this Church when it was rebuilt, and 
it was this service, with other similar ritualistic practices, which led to the 
prelate's execution on Tower Hill, and paved the way for the downfall of his 
Royal master, Charles L Thus the plate of St* Katherine Cree is of peculiar 
interest not only to the City of London but to England at large* 

In connection with the above-mentioned Consecration, the following extract 
from Pennant is of interest: — 

44 The stage on which the imprudent* well-meaning Laud acted a most ;uperstitious 
part in its consecration* on January 16* 1630-31* His whole conduct tended to add new force 
to the discontents and rage of the times: he attempted innovations in the ceremonies of the 
church* at a season he ought at lest to have left them in the state he found them : instead of 
that* he pushed things to extremities* by that* and by his fierce persecutions of his opponents ; 
from which he never desisted till he brought 
destruction on himself* and highly contributed to 
that of his royal master. 

"Prynne* whom every one must allow to 
have had sufficient cause of resentment against the 
archbishop* gives the relation with much acrimony* 
and much prophane humor: 

44 When the bishop approached near the 
communion table, he bowed with his nose very 
near the ground some six or seven times; then 
he came to one of the corners of the table, and 
there bowed himself three times; then to the 
second* third, and fourth corners* bowing at each 
corner three times; but when he came to the side 
of the table where the bread and wine was* he 
bowed himself seven times: and then* after the 
reading many praiers by himself and his two fat 
chaplins* (which were with him, and all this while 
were upon their knees by him* in their sirplisses* 
hoods* and tippits*) he himself came neare the bread, 
which was cut and laid in a fine napkin* and then 
he gently lifted up one of the corners of the 

said napkin* and peeping into it till he saw the bread, (like a boy that peeped into a 
bird's nest in a bush), and presently clapped it down againe* and flew back a step or two* 
and then bowed very low three times towards it and the table. When he beheld the bread, 
then he came near and opened the napkin againe, and bowed as before; then he laid his 
hand upon the gilt cup* which was full of wine* with a cover upon it ; so soon as he had 
pulled the cupp a little neerer to him* he lett the cupp goe* flew backe, and bowed againe 
three times towards it; then hee came neere againe* and lifting up the cover of the cupp* 
peeped into it; and seeing the wine* he let fall the cover on it againe* and flew nimbly 
backe* and bowed as before. After these, and many other apish* anticke gestures* he 
himselfe received, and then gave the sacrament to some principal men onely, they devoutly 
kneeling neere the table ; after which, more praiers being said, this scene and interlude ended." 

The above is of course an exaggeration and burlesques the whole ceremonial* 

A further interesting fact in connection with this Church is that the 
Annual Ceremony known far and wide as a " Flower Sermon" was first 

[l 'ho to. C. Kemp, Manor Park. 



preached at St* James', when that Church was abolished and Dr* Whittemore 
became rector he continued it at St* Katherine Cree* the Church thereby gaining 
a certain amount of fame* The illustration given depicts one of those services 
on Whit Monday a generation or two back — the Church appears to have 
been well patronized at the time* 

The organ is a "Father Smith" built by him in 1686* it has been played 
on by Dr* Purcell* who pronounced it a good instrument* It is by some 
considered to be one of the best of the old organs in the city* 

In Cassell's Old and New London we read! — "In the Middle Ages 
morality plays were acted in the Churchyard of St* Catherine Cree* In an old 


parish book* quoted by Malcom under the date 1565* there is an entry of 
certain players* who for licence to play their interludes in the Churchyard, paid 
the sum of 27s* 8d*" 

Reference elsewhere is made to the eccentric fire-brand and reformer named 
Sir Stephen* who used to be Curate of St. Katherine Cree in the time of 
Edward VI* It is said "he used to preach out of a high elm tree in his 
Churchyard* and sing high Mass in English from a tomb* far from the Altar/ 9 
If the present rector were to try this innovation occasionally for his' daily 
service (which is highly appreciated although the attendance is small)* his 
Congregation would probably be considerably increased* 


^ Iff 


At the North"East corner of St. Mary Aze formerly stood the Hall 
of the Fletchers* (or Arrow^makers') Company. 

The following engraving represents the original House of the East India 
Company, as it appeared from 1648 to 1726. Upon its site stood originally the 
mansion of Alderman Kerton in the reign of Edward VL; this was rebuilt by 
Alderman Lee in the reign of Queen Elizabeth* and enlarged by Sir William Craven, 
Lord Mayor, in 1610* Here Sir William's son, the great Lord Craven, was born, 
and he let the building to the first East India Co. forty*eight years after the date 
of their first charter in 1600. The elevation, as the engraving shews, was 




grotesquely embellished in the taste of the period. In 1726 it was taken down, 
and by various stages up to 1799 the large and important building known by 
many now living and which is depicted on next page, was built upon the site. 
It occupied the ground upon which is now built East India Avenue. 


This part of Leadenhall Street appears to have been the site of several 
distinguished houses* The ground upon which the East India House stood was, 
in the reign of Richard H* occupied by a building in the possession of Michael 
Pisioy* a Lombard, and then for some unknown reason called the " Green Gate/' 
In 1439 it came into the possession of Alderman and Sheriff Philip Malpas* a 
gentleman of great wealth and benevolence* It was plundered by Cade's 
rebels, and it was seized by Henry VII** on what ground does not appear, 
Henry VIH* granted it to John Mutas* a Frenchman, who, it is said, employed 
numbers of his countrymen to calender woollens* This was one of the causes 
of the riots of Evil May Day* 1517, of which further mention is made later on* 

There was at the time a strong agitation against the alien* and on this 
particular May Day the apprentices and others being upon mischief bent* would 
have murdered Mutas if he had not made his escape* The executions and 
other punishments that followed this riot are said to have been many and severe* 

From Gracechurch Street end, shewing the later East India House on the right where now stands East India Avenue. 

At the junction of St* Mary Axe and Leadenhall Street (near the 
Church of St* Andrew Undershaft) the old Maypole or Shaft used to be 


annually erected. Stow says : " which shaft 
wheci it was set on end and fixed in the ground 
was higher than the church steeple/' and thus 
the church received its name of * Under Shaft n 
(its original name was St. Andrew the Apostle), 
when not in use the pole or shaft, as it was 
called, was kept hanging by the side of a row 
of cottages in Shaft Alley by the side of the 
"Ship and Turtle" Hotel in Leadenhall 
Street— ( Shaft Alley is still there), but after 
"evil May-day, 1517/* the pole was kept 
in its resting place and not disturbed for 
many years. In speaking of this May-day 
riot Allen says; "the jealousies of the London 
artificers had been strongly excited by the 
encouragement given to foreign traders who had 
settled in the suburbs* A preacher at the Spital 


Annually erected in front of St. Andrew Undershaft, at Junction of 

Leadenhall Street and St. Mary Axe. 15th Century. 

From an old Engraving reproduced in *' The Penny Magazine" 

ST. MARY AXE, lfito, 

on Tuesday in Easter 
week read a pamphlet from 
the pulpit on the subject, 
which set forth the griev 
ances that many found 
from strangers for taking 
the livings away from 
artificers, and the inter- 
course from Merchants, 
the redress whereof must 
come from the Commons 
united together, * ■ * • 
The 28th day of April 
divers young men picked 
quarrels with certain 
strangers as they passed 
along the streets, some 
they smote and buffeted; 
and some they threw 
in the channel* Then 
suddenly rose a secret 


rumour that on May-day next following 
the City would slay all the aliens, 
insomuch that divers strangers fled* 

Whereupon every 

Alderman sent to his Ward, that no 
man after nine o'clock (on May-eve) 
should stir out of his house, but keep his 
doors shut and his servants within until 
nine o'clock in the morning ♦ ♦ . . 
After this command was given in 
the evening, as Sir John Mundy, 
Alderman, came from his Ward, he 
found two young men playing at the 
bucklers and a great many looking on* 
He ordered them to leave off, and 
because one of them asked why, he 
would have them sent to the Compter. 

♦ ♦ ♦ Then out of every door came 
clubs and other weapons, so that the 
Alderman was put to flight* Then 
more people arose out of every quarter 

♦ ♦ ♦ from all places they gathered 
together and broke open the Compter 

plundered the houses of 

strangers (or foreigners) and committed 
great excesses* The Mayor and 
Sheriffs made proclamation in the 
King's name but were not obeyed/' 

After much turmoil the riot was 
quelled, and about 400 prisoners were 
taken to the Tower or Newgate, 
many were to have been hung* 
44 Ten pair of gallows were set up in 
divers places* Several were hung, but 
a reprieve came from the King to stay 
the execution." The Lord Mayor and 
Aldermen, after several attempts, got 
the King to relent, but not until they had invoked the aid of the powerful Cardinal 
Wolsey ; for which purpose the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and others, in their liveries, 
attended in state at Westminster Hall: the prisoners were brought forth in their 
shirts, bound together with ropes, and halters about their necks, in number 
about 400, and pleaded for pardon* Both the King and Cardinal sharply rebuked 
the Mayor and Aldermen for their negligence and misconduct in not keeping 
better order in the City, and then pardoned the prisoners* Thus ended that 
merry May-day, the riots of which caused all Maypoles to fall into disuse. 
The office of Lord Mayor, Alderman or Sheriff was in those days not always 
the happiest, but full of responsibilities fortunately unknown to-day* 

S'ANDKtW vr»rrc»SmuT. 

. lit ftfml A~>tJ,~* ■/..<■* —r. 

From an old Engraving, the inscription reads t 
Is situated in St. Mary Axe close to Leadenhall Street 
a long Shaft or Pole was formerly placed before the 
South door every first of May until evil Mayday 1517* 
when serious disturbances were occasioned by the 
Apprentices and other young persons who rose against 
the Aliens. Our earliest record of this Church stands 
previous to 1399* The present building which escaped 
the general fire was built in 1520. The immortal Stow 
was buried here 1603. The Rector w*m. Antrobus, B.D., 
in 1794 succeeded Saml. Carr, D.D. 


ST. ANDREW UNDERSHAFT. From an Old Painting 


This unhappy May* 
pole hung at rest after 
" evil Mayday" for 32 
years. When the notorious 
Sir Stephen, curate of St. 
Katherine Cree, preached 
so bitterly against all 
relics of idolatry, in a 
sermon at St* Paul's 
Cross, and particularly 
against the Maypole, 
(which he termed an idol, 
by naming the Church 
41 under the shaft "), that 
the parishioners, inflamed 
by his fanaticism, assem- 
bled in great numbers on 
the afternoon of the same 
Sunday, and dragging 
the poor old idolatrous 
pole from the obscurity 
in which it had been 
rotting, sawed it into 
pieces ; each inhabitant of 
Shaft Alley took for his 
share the portion which 
had lain along his door, 
and reduced the same to 

ashes. This Sir Stephen was the same fire-brand who encompassed the death 
of the Bailiff of Romford, spoken of by Stow. 

The present Church of St. Andrew Undershaft has been described as 
"an elegant specimen of late pointed Gothic Architecture." The interior is 
richly and beautifully decorated. 

Like St. Katherine Cree — it escaped the Fire: it was rebuilt in 1508-32, 
and has been added to and various improvements made from time to time. 
The interior displays ranges of slender pillars, supporting slight arches, 
beautifully proportioned. There are several stained glass windows of great 
interest and rich design* 

The Church contains several monuments, some of which are worthy of special 
notice, the principal one being that to the famous John Stow, the ill-used and neglected 
Historian of London, who asked for bread and like many another clever genius, 
was given a stone, but he needed no pomp of Marble to transmit his name and 
actions. It is a sufficient eulogy to say, that his works survive him, and will be 
read with pleasure and instruction as long as the language shall remain. He wrote 
the "Survey of London," and had he not have done so it is astonishing how 
little we should have known of London during the middle ages. He was reduced to 
the necessity of seeking relief by soliciting charitable contributions in the 78th year 
of his age, having obtained from James L as a mark of his royal favour a 



license to beg: he died in the Ward of Aldgate in great distress, in 1603* 
The debt which London owes to this painstaking, plodding son of a Cornhill Tailor 
can now never be paid, but the Rector and Churchwardens are doing their 
best to keep his memory green by taking a pride in his monument as they do 
^fc|^^^l of the whole of this famous 

Church* The monument is a 
half~length statue of the chron- 
icler, seated at his desk, his pen 
in his hand, writing in a boot 
The pen is renewed annually. 

There are many other 
monuments worthy of notice, 
notably that of Sir William 
Craven, Lord Mayor in 1610, 
who although he came to London 
a poor boy from Wharfedale, in 
Yorkshire, in a carrier's cart, 
became one of the wealthiest and 
most eminent citizens of his day, 
and left many legacies and tokens 
of benevolence. He lived in a large 
and commodious house standing 
in its own grounds in Leadenhall 
Street, a short distance past Lime 
Street, known as Craven House, 
which was afterwards sold by one 
of his descendants, to the old East 
India Company in 1726, of which 
mention is made elsewhere. His 
son William, Lord Craven, who 
acquired great reputation as a 
soldier under the King of Sweden 


was born in this Parish. He was a nobleman of great influence and highly 
esteemed, and assisted both Charles L and H. with large sums of money in their 
necessities. He was said to have been privately married to the Queen of Bohemia, 
sister of Charles L 

There is a monument to another Lord Mayor, Sir Thomas Offley, who 
occupied the Civic Chair in 1556. He is represented with his wife and three 
children in the attitude of prayer. 

The following is Mr. Edwin Freshfield's description of the Plate taken from 
his book on the City Church Plate: — 

Two Silver Tankards; both have the date mark for 1636, and are inscribed with the 
weights. They were the gift of The Worshipful Alderman Abdy and Mr. John Steward, 
in 1637, respectively. 


New made with addition 1716, 

A Silver Tankard with the date mark for 1636 and a maker's mark "R.M." with a 
mullet below, and inscribed with the weights and "S.A.V.," and with the arms of the Church, 
an Arrow over a S. Andrew's Cross in a plain shield. 

A Silver-gilt Cup with the date mark for 1609 and a maker's mark M S.CV inscribed with 
the weight and the name of the Church. 

A Silver-gilt Cup like the last, with the same date mark and a maker's mark " LA^" and 
inscribed with the weight and with a coat'of-arms and u The gifte of Jone Cartwright Anno 1609 
to S. Andrew Undershaft." 

A Silver Paten in all respects like the last cup. 

A Silver-gilt Paten with the date mark for 1627 and a maker's mark "Riv" with a 
heart below in a heart-shaped shield. 

A Silver Paten with the date mark for 1715 and * mafcorNs m»r\t «s.T..." 
44 The gift of Mr. John Steward, SA.V. Anno 1637. 
Mr. Francis Smart Mr. Francis Harris churchwardens." 

A Silver Dish with the date mark for 1672 and a maker's mark " LR-," and inscribed 
"SA.V." and "Francis More." 

A Silver-gilt Spoon with the date mark for 1685, and a maker's mark"LS«," crowned 
in a plain shield. 

A Beadle's Staff with a silver head. The head is a statuette of St. Andrew leaning 
on his Cross. Date 1713. 

A large and hand" 
some house with courts 
and garden plots once 
stood in Bury Street, 
near where it joins 
Bevis Marks; for a 
long time it belonged 
to the Bassets, but was 
at the time of the 
Priory of the Holy 
Trinity in the occu^ 
pation of the Abbots 
of Bury, in Suffolk. 
The immediate neigh- 
bourhood received the 
name of Buries Marks, 
which has since been 
corrupted into Bevis 
Marks* After the dis~ 
solution of the Abbey 
of Bury by Henry VIIL, 
the house passed into the 
hands of the Heneage 
family, who lived there 
for some generations, 
Sir Thomas Heneage 
probably being the last. 
Heneage Lane was 
named after this family* st. andrew undershaft, 1904. 


(The corner premises were rebuilt some years ago.) 

On the site of what is now the Church- 
yard of St* Martin Outwich in Camomile Street, 
there formerly stood an Establishment called the 
"Papey," which was an Hospital or place of 
refuge for certain devout but decayed Priests and 
other persons who were "skilled in singing dirges/' 
They commonly attended at solemn funerals, for 
a fee of course, to put the soul of the departed at 
rest* Lady Melbourne in 1543, bequeathed ten 
shillings that the brethren of this institution 
should perform the office for her soul's good* 

This brotherhood was suppressed in the 
reign of Edward VI. and the house was after* 
wards occupied by Sir Francis Walsingham, 
principal Secretary of State to Queen Elizabeth* 

St* Mary Axe was so named from the 
Church of St. Mary, which used to stand in 
;r/,o/,. c .K<»,p. M.u.or ra,k. that street together with a shop which had 
top of st. mary axe, 1904. for its sign an Axe. 


The picture on the next page will appeal to all lovers of the immortal Dickens, 
It represents the row of shops in Leadenhall Street, on the north side adjoining 
Bishopsgate Street, as they were some few years before he wrote Dornbey and Son* 
The second one on the left was the home of "The Little Midshipman," and 
was the second house on the left in Leadenhall Street coming from the Bank. 
Dickens himself visited it several times whilst writing the story, and had the 
interior specially sketched for his first edition* 

Aldgate has a close interest in "The Little Midshipman/' as when he left 
Leadenhall Street he migrated to the Minories, a few doors down on the right 
hand side, and daily pilgrims at the shrine of Dickens come to see him* The 

_£/ 4* TT&rtA *»**£ t 3tM*eetf v/iftr 1 Ht)i**/t f*£t*irA if, '/. 7/w//fsf * ///frfrfi */ts/// i n Jiw kt*(i*¥\ Jkm& 

ST. ANDREW UNDERSHAFT. From an Old Engraving. 

establishment, which has been the happy possessor of this famous sign, is a 
typical city house of the old school: established in 176s they have enjoyed a 
period of unbroken popularity for some 150 years* The firm takes some pride 
in shewing the key of the cellar from which the famous bottles of Madeira 
were drawn* So accurate was Dickens that the cellar downstairs and the 
staircase leading upstairs, with many other details, were all most minutely described 

from the house portrayed* They also possess another most valuable and interesting 
relic in the actual chair used by Nelson when at sea and captain of the 

I .,.,», I.h,:I, 

or i,w»^»i UJ. * rrtt»"T* 

il*. , i>, su ,,v.,l |,v !!»■ r\.. ii.iw Kji- ..f p.; 

The " Little Midshipman ** is shewn, though rather faintly, over the 
second shop from the left-hand side. 

Frigate "Boreas": the full details of the facts are recorded on a brass plate 

affixed thereto. The actual inscription reads: — 

"This was Lord Nelson's favorite 
chair when he was Captain of the Boreas 
Frigate, presented by his Master, James 
Jamieson, to Wm. Heather, being part of 
the property purchased by J. "w\ Norie 
and Wilson, in Leaden hall Street, London." 

At the corner of Gracechurch 
Street and Leadenhall Street there used 
to stand a house known as Leaden 
HalL A view of its front elevation 
is to be seen upon the accompanying 
old plan of Lime Street Ward, and its 
location is also distinctly shewn 

Pennant gives an interesting 

account of this house as follows: 

u A large plain building, inhabited, 
about the year 1309, by Sir Hugh Nevil, 
knight; in 1384 belonging to Humphry 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford* In 1408 it became 
the property of the munificent Whittington, 
who presented it to the mayor and 
commonalty of London. In 1419, Sir 
Simon Eyre, citizen and draper, erected 
here a public granary, built with stone 
in its present form. This was to be what 
the French call a Grenier d'abondance, to be 
always filled with corn, and designed as a 
preservative against famine* The intent was 


[Photo. C. Kemp, Manor Park. 

' LITTLE MIDSHIPMAN." Now in the Minories. 


happily answered in distressful seasons. This and other of the city granaries seem at first 
to have been under the care of the mayors; but in Henry VTII/s time, regular surveyors 
were appointed. He also built a chapel within the square; this he intended to apply to the 
uses of a foundation for a warden, six secular priests, six clerks, and two choristers, and 
besides, three schoolmasters. For this purpose he left three thousand marks to the Drapers 
Company to fulfil his intent. This was never executed : but in 1466 a fraternity of sixty 
priests, some of whom were to perform divine service every market-day, to such who 
frequented the market, was founded by three priests, William Rouse, John Risby, and 
Thomas Ashby. 

J * o rs & 4 r E ^ u - A a " 

<LsAm* i'i±u m mmt A*m&t^ eWu^ Lqvls L'un. us EAj! * /Msttim* 4jLM+t£j^fr t *>* &G 4L stz*. 

"Leadenhall Street had the good fortune to escape tolerably well in the great fire. 
The house was used for many other purposes; for the keeping the artillery and other arms 
of the city. Preparations for any triumph or pageantry in the city were made here. From 
its strength it was considered as the chief fortress within the city, in case of popular tumults ; 
and also as the place from which doles, largesses, or pious alms were to be distributed. Here, 
in 1546, while Henry VIIL lay putrefying in state, Heath, Bishop of Winchester, his almoner, 
and others his ministers, distributed great sums of money, during twelve days, to the poor of 
the city, for the salvation of his souL The same was done at Westminster; but I greatly 
fear his majesty was past ransom!" 


Fenchurch and Adjacent Streets. 

Fenchurch Street took its 
name from its peculiar situation* A 
rivulet, called Langbourne* arose 
near the spot formerly called Magpie 
Alley, but recently Church Passage, 
running at the side of St* Katherine 
Coleman* This stream rendered the 
contiguous street so moorish or 
fenny* especially about the little 
church of St* Gabriel (which stood 
in the middle of the street* between 
Mincing Lane and Rood Lane* but 
being destroyed in the Great Fire 
was not rebuilt)* hence the street took its name Fenchurch. 

f Photo. C. Kemp, Manor Park. 


[Photo. C. Kiiup, Matter Park. 

Where Northumberland House once stood. 

Stow says:— " The second way from Aldgate* from the pump aforesaid* is 
called Fenchurch Street* and is of Aldgate Ward until ye come to Culver Alley 
on the west side of Ironmongers' Hall* where sometime was a lane which went 
out of Fenchurch Street to the middest of Lime Street* but this lane was stopped 
up for suspicion of thieves that lurked there by night* Again to Aldgate* out 


of the principal street, even by the gate and wall of the city, runneth a lane 
south to Crowched Friars, and then Woodroffe Lane to the Tower Hill* . ♦ ♦ 
One other lane more west from Aldgate goeth by Northumberland House toward 
the Crossed Friars; then have ye on the same side Mart Lane and Blanch 
Apleton, the north end of where that ward endeth." 

Frequenters of Aldgate twenty years ago will recollect the massive and 
prison like buildings at the end of Fenchurch Street next to Northumberland 
Alley, formerly belonging to the East India Company, later to the Dock 
Company, and used as a Bonded Warehouse* It occupied ail the space upon 
which Dixon House, Lloyd's Register and Lloyd's Avenue now stand, down 
to Crutched Friars* On this spot formerly stood the residence of the Prior of 
Havering Church, to which was nearly attached the town residence of Henry 
Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and his son, who lost their lives in the wars of 
the Roses, and whose name is still preserved in that of Northumberland Alley, 
which was a part of the site of this mansion. Two of the children of the 
Northumberland family were baptized at St* Katherine Coleman* The ground 
was subsequently converted into a Bowling Alley, and was before the Fire of 
London occupied by many small houses and gardens. 

A short distance along 
Fenchurch Street is Fenchurch 
Buildings, one of those quiet corners 
peculiar to the City: it had 
(especially a few years back before 
certain alterations were made), and 
still has an old-world air about it* 
It has always been, as it is to-day, 
the abiding place of well'to~do and 
old-established firms* Lambert in 
his survey mentions it "as a 
very neat street called Fenchurch 
Buildings* It was one of those 

superior residential quarters where :rhcl0 . c . ***. Manor park. 

the wealthy merchant lived a century fenchurch buildings, 1904. 

ago in the same house as that in which he had his counting house* Mr* James 
Taddy, a Common Councillor for Aldgate, lived at No. 2* He removed in 1812 to 
the Minories, where his firm, James Taddy & Co*, acquired world-wide fame. 

Opposite Fenchurch Buildings is the Church of St* Katherine Coleman, 
which received the addition of Coleman from a great yard or garden called at that 
time Coleman-haw in the parish of the Trinity, afterwards Christ Church* It is 
a Rectory of ancient foundation dating back to 1346* The old church was 
repaired and a south aisle added in 1489 by Sir William White, Lord Mayor of 
London. It escaped the Fire of London; but being much buried by the raising 
of the street in 1734, it was pulled down, and the present church was erected at 
the expense of the parish. 

The steeple is a plain tower crowned with battlements: the whole exterior 
is oppressively plain and it has been described as the ugliest church in the City* 
Its interior, however, is fairly lofty and well lighted, and partakes of that quaint 
and old-world air characteristic of the City churches* It possesses an antiquated 



From an Old Engraving. 



organ which has the peculiarity of having the natural keys black and the sharps 
and flats white: notwithstanding good music can, however, be got from it. 

Mr. Edwin Freshfield's 
description of its plate is as 
follows : — 

A Silver Tankard with, the 
date mark for 1685, and a maker's 
mark"P.RV crowned with a cinquefoil 
and three pellets below in a plain 
shield, inscribed with the weight and 
"St. Katharine Coleman*" 

Two Silver Cups with the 
same date and maker's marks and 
inscriptions and inscribed with the 

Two Silver Patens with the 
same date and maker's marks and 

Three Silver Dishes and two 
Pewter Plates. Of the Dishes, one 
was presented by Marmaduke 
Westwood, 8th December, 1743; the 
second has the date mark for 1838; 
and the third was presented by James 
Catling, 1846. 

A beadle's staff with a metal 
head. The head is a statuette of a 
man (? S. Peter). It is inscribed 
"St. Katherine Coleman 1781." 

When the first Earl of 
Northampton carried off the 
daughter and heiress of Sir John 
Spencer in a baker's basket, he 
brought her to St. Katherine 

Between the Church and Mark Lane is London Street, so named from 
being built on the spot where the London Tavern, the first house of that name in 
the City, formerly stood. 

At the corner of Mark Lane stands the present London Tavern — it was 
formerly the " King's Head," and is shewn in the large engraving of Fenchurch 
Street. Queen Elizabeth, on her release from the Tower, where she had been 
imprisoned by her sister, is said to have dined here, and having been for some time 
in confinement she, rejoicing in her freedom and accession to the throne, made 
a hearty meal of pork and peas. In the coffee room the management still show 
with pride the metal dish and cover used by the virgin queen on that occasion. 
The old Tavern was rebuilt in 1877. The building is as lavishly decorated, 
both internally and externally, as any in the City. 

109, FENCHURCH STREET (demolished). 

The house on the right occupies the site of the Atlantic Transport 

Co/s Offices. This house used to be seen from Railway Place. 


Ironmongers' Hall is in Fenchurch Street, a short distance past Billiter 
Street; one or two views of it are given* It is a noble building of massive 
design, and dates from 1748. The interior is very elegant, having a spacious 

FENCHURCH STREET. From London Almanack, /;<.,'. 
From an old Print in the Guildhall Collet t ion. 

vestibule divided by six Tuscan pillars, with a drawing room approached by a 
handsome oval geometrical staircase* The state room is very magnificent, with 

FENCHURCH STREET, 1904. V' h *t°- C . Ktmp, Manor Park. 

From same sp-d as large picture of Ironmongers' Hall. 

Ionic decorations, and there are many valuable paintings hanging in the Hall* 
The Ironmongers' Company is both old and wealthy, and has an interesting 
history of its own* 


— 4S- 

A little higher up Fenchurch Street there stood an old Inn with a history* 
It was one of the houses so frequently read about at which certain men of light 
and leading used to meet* It was known as the " Elephant/* and there Hogarth and 

kindred spirits foregathered. 
The inscription under the illus* 
tration reads :— " This House 
merits the attention of all 
lovers of Painting & Genius, 
for in it previous to his ex- 
tended celebrity lodged Wm. 
Hogarth* On the wall of the 
Tap Room, the curious will 
find 4 Paintings by him re- 
plete in well varied chaste 
character. One represents the 
Hudson's Bay Company's 
Porters. Another his first 
idea for the Modern Midnight 
Conversation, differing from 
the Print in a circumstance 
too broad in its humour for 
the Graver. The 3rd is 
Harlequin & Pierot seeming 
to be laughing at the Figure 
alluded to in the last Picture. 
In the 1st Floor is a Paint- 
ing of Harlow Bush Fair 
coverd over with paint. 
Mrs. Hibbert has kept the 
House between 30 & 40 years, 
:? her Information 


a********^^ ana 

^±^^^'^^^^X^^Z acquainted with him. This 
t ™^*™^to.mJhtn*wl*i&! /< jg n fi^ House was built before the 

-~^£-a£j3^,^ LJ, ' Fire of London & although 

so near, escaped its dreadfull 

Fnm an Ol,1 Print in the Guildhall Collation. p „ 

On the South side of Fenchurch Street, in the neighbourhood of what is 
now Mark Lane and Mincing Lane, was a Manor known as Blanch Apleton 
belonging to one Sir Thomas Roos. Edward IV. located there practically all 
the alien labour which London then possessed. From that it gradually grew to 
be a Mart for certain classes of goods. 

Stow speaking of it, says: "This Blanch Apleton was a Manor 
belonging to Sir Thomas Roos, standing at the North'East corner of Mart Lane, 
so called of a privilege sometime enjoined to keep a Mart there, long since 
discontinued and therefore forgotten, so as nothing remaineth but the name, 
and that corruptly termed Mark Lane." 




1 u 


_^^ '* ' _*J ^ 

■ : ^u 



Where the Dock Warehouses once stood before Lloyd's Avenue was built 

Mention is 

made elsewhere 

of Dixon House 

and Lloyd's 

Register* This 

remarkably fine 

avenue of build' 

ings is reputed to 

be the most hand' 

some in design 

and fitting and 

most massive in 

proportion of any 

similar property 

in the City* 

The land* 

about two acres 

in extent* on 

which Lloyd's 

Registry* Dixon 

House* Corona- 
tion House* Lloyd's Avenue House and other buildings now stand* was purchased 

about seven years ago by Mr* James Dixon* of London* from the East and West 

India Dock Co** for 
about £250,000* and 
the land for the new 
street* Lloyd's Avenue* 
was given by that 
gentleman to the Cor~ 
poration* The value 
of the land so conveyed 
for a much required 
thoroughfare was not 
less than £50*000* and 
the street was con* 
structed upon up~to~ 
date principles* with 
subway* etc** to the 
cost of which Mr* 
Dixon made a liberal 

Approximately a 
sum of £600,000 has 
been expended on the 
land and buildings in 
Lloyd's Avenue under 
the supervision of 
Mr*T. E. Collcutt*the 
late Mr* Barrow 
Emanuel* and other 
,. , , , c . «, , well-known architects. 

The Finest Avenue of Office Property in the City -Lloyd's Avenue. 

- 51- 

22 S 


a. g 
O 3 





The following illustration represents the row of buildings, since demolished, 
which stood where "The George*' Hotel and St. Helen's House now stand* 
The entrance to George Yard is to be noted* The old " George" was a noted 
Wagon House and its frontage was supposed to have occupied the space of about 
the first four houses in the picture* Before the present hotel was built two 

Where St. Helen's House and "The George" Hotel now stand. 

public houses stood in the block, "The George" and "The Grapes." both to be 
seen in the picture* "The George/' the fourth house from the left* stood partly 
in St* Katherine Cree and partly in St. Katherine Coleman* which occasioned 
a peculiar dispute when a friendless servant girl died there; neither parish 
would bury her* her feet being in the one parish and her head in the other* 


After much dispute it was decided that the parish in which her head laid at time 
of death should bear the expense* 

This little house was once, 'tis said, the recipient of a Royal visit many 
years ago (possibly about 40); a great fire occurred bringing down No* 80 
Fenchurch Street, and much property behind* Captain Shaw came to superintend 


Was consecrated 1622. It possessed no historical interest, further than it was founded 1622 by the Corporation 

of London at the request of the inhabitants who had been expelled from the Priory Church of the Holy Trinity. 

The Iron Gate on the Nortb'East corner is the Entrance to the Jewish Synagogue. It was pulled down some 

30 years back and the benefice added to St. Katherine Cree. 

the operations, and Our Most Gracious Majesty the King, then Prince of Wales, 
came with him viewing the conflagration for a long time and taking refresh' 
ments during the night in "The George/* 

The license of "The Grapes " was cancelled when the present premises 
were erected* 


Crutched Friars. 

Henry Thomas, in writing of this district, says: — " Crutched Friars was so 
denominated from a monastery founded there in 1298, by Ralph Hosier and 
William Sabernis, who became friars of it, and dedicating it the Holy Cross, 
the fraternity were then distinguished by the title of friars of St* Cross, or Crossed 
or Crouched Friars (Frztres Sandi Cruets)* They originally carried an iron cross, 
which they afterwards changed to one of silver, and they wore a cross of red cloth 
on their garments* There were other fraternities added to the Crouched Friars; 
one dedicated to the most holy blood of Jesus, and another to St* Catharine* 

Destruction was brought on the whole community by the dissolute conduct 
of one of the priors, who was detected by the commissioners with a courtezan in 
his chamber, on a Friday particularly devoted to fasting, penance, and mortification 
of the flesh, at an early hour of the day; the visitors, highly shocked at this 
discovery of monastic incontinence, pocketed the bribe of thirty pounds proffered 
by the prior to secure secrecy; and immediately leaving the place, submitted the 
facts to Cromwell, the vicar~general* This hastened the final dissolution of 
the monasteries, and it was surrendered in 1539* 

5%*JVjfy Office m CrueAtd Fn&v, *£gnd&&* 

The house was granted by Henry VIII* to Sir Thomas Wyatt, who 
pulled it down, and built a mansion on the site* The church was afterwards 
converted into a carpenter's shop, and a tennis court. The friars' hall was used 
as a glass house, being the first glass manufactory in England; the whole 
range of these buildings were reduced to ashes by a terrible fire in 1575, which 
consumed all but the boundary walls, which were of stone. On the site was 


erected the Navy Office, the business of which being subsequently removed to 
Somerset House, it was purchased by the East India Company, who erected 
spacious warehouses for teas, &c* It is a regular oblong square of two hundred 
and fifty feet by one hundred and sixty, inclosing a court of one hundred and 
fifty feet by sixty, entered by an arched gateway/' 

The Navy Office to which old Pepys was attached and referred to above, 
is illustrated on page 55, its exact location can be seen on the old map of 
Aldgate Ward, page 2* The Monastery of the Crouched Friars, including their 
church, hall, and dwelling accommodation, probably occupied the whole ground 
upon which the premises of Messrs* BucknalTs and Sir Roper Parkington's 
firms are situated, down to Seething Lane, and including all the ground upon 
which the Dock Warehouses now stand. 



The following is extracted from Cassell's Old and New London : 
"One of the most extraordinary old houses in London was one sketched 
by J* T. Smith, in 1792, and taken down in 1801* It stood at the end of a low 
dark court on the south side of Hart Street, and was universally known in 
Crutched Friars as Whittington's Palace* The last lodger was a carpenter, who 
had sunk a saw-pit at the north end of the courtyard* The whole front of the 
house, which had originally formed three sides of a square, was of carved oak* 
The tradition was that the cats* heads carved on the ceilings always had their 
eyes directed on the spectator wherever he stood, and that even the knockers had 
once been shaped like cats* heads* Two sides of the outer square were nearly all 
glass lattice, and above and below ran wild beasts' heads and crouched goblins, 
that acted as corbels. The doorway panels were richly carved, and above and 
below each tier of windows were strings of carved shields, including several arms 
of the City companies/* 


Jewry in Aldgate. 

From the Commonwealth when the Jews entered into an arrangement 
with Cromwell to return to England, Aldgate and its neighbourhood has been 
the centre of Jewish life* Jewry Street used to be called " Poor Jewry," a name 
sufficiently expressive* The religious life of the Jews centred for many years in 
this district, and their places of worship have a history of their own* 


Condensed from the "Jewish Year "Bock/' 

The Spanish and Portuguese Congregation in London dates from the year 
1656, when having been permitted to resettle in England, the first Jewish residents 
in the Metro* 
polis are be- 
lieved to have 
established a 
place of wor* 
ship in Cree 
In 1664 they 
acquired a 
meeting 'house 
in King'Street, 
Aldgate, and 
in 1674 they 
obtained a 
years' lease of 
an adjoining 
house* The 
having been 
out'grown by 
the Congrega- 
tion, a site for 

a new Synagogue was selected in Plough-yard, Bevis Marks, towards the end 
of the seventeenth century* The contract for building was signed on the 12th 
February, 1699, and the cost was fixed at £2,750, to be paid in seven instalments* 
A rafter in the building is said to have been presented by Queen Anne, and to 
have been taken from the hulk of one of Her Majesty's ships* Some of the 
benches (chavetas) were brought from the old Synagogue in King'Street* The new 
structure was a copy of the Portuguese Synagogue in Amsterdam, and its brass 
chandeliers were imported from Holland* The Synagogue sustained some damage 
from fire in 1738* The annexed buildings, which had been burnt to the ground, 
were reconstructed in 1749. 

At one time the Bevis Marks Synagogue was supported by a special tax 
levied on its members, in addition to the Finta, with which Yehidim are still 



assessed* It consisted of an impost paid on all goods bought or sold in Great 
Britain for foreign account at the rate of two shillings a hundred pounds, and 
an impost of a shilling a hundred pounds on goods in transitu, and on stock 
bought or sold for foreign account* Formerly* also* there were special offerings 
for the redemption of Jewish captives (Cautiwos) and for Terra Santa* 

On June 26th* 1901* a bicentenary service was held at Bevis Marks* to 
commemorate the 200th anniversary of the opening of the Synagogue* Every 
section of the Jewish community participated in this event* 


Condensed from the "Jewish Year Book." 
First established as a small meeting house for prayer by the German Jews 

some time before the year 1692* in Broad Court* Mitre Square* and afterwards 

in Duke's Place in 1722* in a more commodious building erected at the sole 

expense of 
Moses of Bres~ 
lau* a wealthy 
merch ant* 
the building 
was demolish^ 
ed and the pre- 
sent handsome 
one built* Mrs* 
Judith Levy* 
daughter of the 
tioned Moses 
of Breslau* 
£4,000 towards 
the undertake 
ing. Being the 
most spacious 
Synagogue be^ 
longing to the 
German Jews* 
it became 
known as the 

Great Synagogue* It has had many pious benefactors and donors* and is the centre of 

much good work and many charities amongst the Jewish population of East London* 
In what used to be Smith's Buildings in Leadenhall Street and is now 

known as Pound's Buildings* there used to be a Jewish Rabbinical College* which 

is said to have contained one of the most splendid Jewish Libraries in Europe; 

lectures were delivered gratuitously to the public on Friday evenings by 

learned Jews* 

In 1760 Moses Jacobs founded as a schismatic offshcot of the Great 

Synagogue a place of worship at Bricklayers' Hall* Leadenhall Street (see page 19). 

The congregation afterwards removed and founded the famous ** New Synagogue " 

in Great St* Helen's in 1838. 


J'hsie. f. Koitp. Man 


An Aldgate Charity. 

Aldgate is said to be one of the richest parishes in London so far as its 
charities are concerned, which are estimated at the respectable amount of £10,000 
per annum* The principal of these is the "Cass Foundation/* one of the most 
important and best conducted Institutions of its kind in or around London* 
The following particulars extracted from the City Vress are of interest; — 

" The accompanying illustrations represent 

several specimens of the interesting collection of plate, 

etc., in the possession of the Sir John Cass's Founda- 
tion. The publication of these illustrations affords us 

an opportunity of relating the history of a foundation 

which has done untold good in the parish of St. 

Botolph, Aldgate, for the last two hundred years. The 

estates out of which the Sir John Cass School, Aldgate, 

was built, and which now support it, were bequeathed 

by Sir John Cass in the year 1709. Sir John was a 

rich citizen, and very prominent in local affairs. He 

was the son 0/ an architect to the Admiralty — the 

Navy Office, at the date of its birth in 1665, being in 

Crutched Friars. He became the Alderman of his 

ward, and in the same year was chosen as one of the 

representatives of the City in Parliament. In the year 

1 71 2 he served the office of Sheriff, being the Master 

of the Carpenters' Company in his Shrieval year. 

Later on he became connected with the Skinners' THE CASS BADGE. 

Company. In 171 3 he was one of a deputation who 
waited upon Queen Anne to offer her the congratula- 
tions of the citizens of London on the Peace of 
Utrecht ; and received the honour of knighthood 
from Her Majesty. Generally speaking, the informa- 
tion respecting the career of Sir John Cass, seeing 
the important part he played as a citizen, is some- 
what meagre, and, up to the time of the death of his 
father in 1699, little or nothing is recorded of him. 
We know that he had to fly from Crutched Friars 
to Hackney— then a village of about 1,000 inhabitants 
— to escape the plague, and also that he was a great 
friend of Pepys, the diarist. In 1706 land had been 
leased to the ' Ancients ' of the parish of Aldgate, on 
which they intended to build a school for the poor. 
It seems, however, that funds were not forthcoming, 
the matter remaining in abeyance until 1710, when 
Sir John offered to build the school at his own cost. 
The offer was accepted, and in the same year the 
school was built at the corner of Houndsditch, on 
the west side of the parish church of St. Botolph. 

In providing for this trust Sir John Cass also left 


funds to send two boys, when qualified, to the University, and for apprenticing a certain 
number. These provisions are contained in his will bearing date May 6, 1709. He made a 
second will in 1718, and died in the act of signing it. It is said that, as he was in the act 
of affixing his signature to the document, he was seized with hemorrhage, and the blood stained 

the quill pen with which he was writing. This fact 
was till recently commemorated by the quaint custom 
of the school children being presented with quill 
pens, stained red, which were worn in the button hole 
of their coats at the anniversary service. 

"The new will was intended to partly revoke 
the first, and much litigation followed. It was only in 
1748 that a scheme under the will was finally passed by 
the Master of the Court of Chancery, and trustees were 
appointed, In 1840 a supplementary scheme was made 
by the Court of Chancery. The school was carried on 
usefully until 1895, when, the revenue of the Foundation 
having largely increased, a new scheme was prepared 
by the Charity Commissioners, and adopted on May 11 
of that year. This scheme provided for the establish- 
ment of an institution to be called ' Sir John Cass's 
Technical Institute.' It was to comprise workshops 
for tuition in wood and metal, a library, a gymnasium, 
and social rooms. The building was opened by Lord 
Avebury, in June, 1902. It is, as the Governors 
anticipated, becoming a popular educational centre, 
and proving a great boon to the industrial classes of 
East London, from all parts of which it is easily 

"Originally the school was of an elementary 
character, and on removing to new premises in Jewry 
Street, it not only educated no boys and 100 girls 
gratuitously, but supplied them with free clothing, also 
giving them a dinner each week day. The Governors 
still give free clothing and food to children of the 
Foundation's day school whose parents reside or have 
their occupation in certain privileged districts, and to 
others on payment of a small fee. 

"As regards the collection of articles mentioned, perhaps the mace is the most interesting. 
It is a representation of the spire of the old parish church of St Botolph, Aldgate. It was 
presented to the trustees by Mr. Robert Harley, and was originally used at the * Cockneys' 
Feast," which was held in the parish at one time. To its possession an especial inttrest attaches, 
in that it was the gift of Sir John Cass to the society. The Bentham Cup is a richly and curiously 
chased one of silver-gilt, and was presented to the Governors by Jeremy Bentham, who was one 
of the original trustees of the Foundation." 



Chapels in Aldgate. 


During the Commonwealth, Non-Conformity flourished in the City, but through 
various causes it has since decayed. Aldgate had a considerable number of their places 
of worship. 

MARK LANE. — For some years an influential congregation met in this Lane; the exact 
spot is now difficult to find. 

Originally it seems to have been ... in the house of one of the wealthy City Merchants 
at that time residing in the Lane. 

The church was gathered together about the year 1662, by the Rev. Joseph Caryl 1, who had 
been rector of St. Magnus, London Bridge. This gentleman was also preacher to the Honourable 
Society of Lincoln's Inn, and also a member of the Westminster Assembly of Divines. He . . . 
published, among other works, "An Exposition with Practical Observations on the Birth of Job," 
in twelve volumes, quarto . . . 

Dr. John Owen, who was pastor of another church in the neighbourhood, succeeded 
Mr. Caryll, the two churches being united . . . Mr. Wilson describes Mr. Owen as *' the prince 
of modern divines." 

In 1652 he was chose/i Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford . . . He was the 
author of a considerable number of works. He died in 1683, aged 67 years, and was buried in Bunhill 
Fields, as many as 67 carriages, filled with friends and admirers, following him to the grave. 

Dr. Chauncey, a divine of considerable learning but not popular as a preacher, succeeded to 
the charge in 1687 and resigned in 1702 . . . 

In 1708 this church removed to Bury Street, St. Mary Axe. 

BURY STREET, ST. MARY AXE.— One of the most interesting recollections of this old 
City meeting house is the fact that for nearly 50 years the Rev. Dr. Isaac Watts (the Hymn Writer) 
was the pastor. 

On the same day that King William died (18th March, 1702), Isaac Watts was " solemnly " 
ordained to succeed Dr. Chauncey, whose assistant he had been for some time . . . 

This ordination service took place in the old meeting house in Mark Lane. At this time 
Dr. Watts was residing in the Lane. It was also from here that he published his metrical version of 
the Psalms. 

In 1708 the Chapel in Bury Street was opened by the Rev. Thomas Bradbury. It is 
described as a building with three galleries, and was erected at a cost of £350. 

Dr. Watts is said to have had a "large and respectable congregation." A writer says: 
" Although neither a fluent or popular preacher many citizens, who then lived over their business 
premises, might be seen on the Sabbath mornings walking to the sanctuary where Dr. Watts 
preached." One of his most devoted hearers was Sir Thomas Abney, the Alderman of Vintry Ward, 
and Lord Mayor in 1700. With this worthy Alderman Dr. Watts spent much of his time at his 
mansion at Abney Park, Stoke Newington, and was always a welcome guest . . . 

In 1823 the church was removed to Bethnal Green. 

JEWRY STREET CHAPEL (supposed to have stood a few doors down on the right, about 
where the Tower Tea Warehouses are). — About the time of Charles II. a Society of Presbyterians 
met ... in what was then called Poor Jewry Lane . , . The first Pastor was Mr. Timothy 
Cruse, who had a flourishing church and congregation. This was about 1687 . . . 


Messrs. HORNER & SONS. Drug Merchants, Mitre Square — this business dates back 
nearly 200 years. It is said that their Bankers have an unbroken account with the house for nearly 
all that period. It was formerly carried on under the name of Fawkes & Horner. 

Messrs. VANDOME, TITFORD & PAWSON, Scale Makers, 56, Leadenhall Street- this 
firm dates back 225 years — for generations occupied premises at the corner of St. Mary Axe as 
shewn on page 37. 

Messrs. NORIE & WILSON, 156, Minories, Nautical Instrument Dealers and Chart 
Publishers, established some 140 years, removed from Leadenhall Street, the house immortalized 
by Dickens in Dombey and Son as the home of the Little Midshipman. [See pp. 41-2.] 

Messrs. NASH & SON, Woollen Merchants, the oldest house in the trade in London, 
16, 17 & 18, Aldgate, (see our frontispiece), established 200 years. Mr. S. Weddell, whose portrait 
hangs in the Aldgate Ward School, was connected with this house some 75 years ago. 

Messrs. STANDRING, DRAKE & Co., Wine Merchants, Minories, established some 
140 years. This business is one of the oldest in the Wine Trade, and they have cellars of unusual 
size extending from their house to George Street. 

Messrs. WIGGINS, TEAPE & Co., Paper Makers and Merchants, 10, Aldgate. The history 
of this famous firm is almost lost in antiquity. It was started at a house having the sign of the Nag's 
Head, at the corner of Northumberland Alley, and after being there many years removed in 1761 to 
10, Aldgate their present premises (see our frontispiece). Tradition says the sign of the house was 
the Nine Bells. They were probably the first firm in the paper trade to send a commercial traveller 
out of London, It was in the days before railways, when highwaymen and other dangers abounded 
and travelling was a much more adventurous calling than it is to-day. Mr. Carter, a member of 
the firm, used to keep his stable at the Saracen's Head Yard, and drove his trap in the good old 
fashioned bagman style described by Dickens. His journey stretched from London to Carlisle and 
his nag was as much a part of the concern as he was. Those were the days when Banking facilities 
were not what they are now, and Banks were few and far between. As he collected his accounts 
he had to let the money accumulate (it being frequently in gold) and perhaps carry it about for some 
time— the task of sleeping night after night in a fresh town with a Bag of Gold under one's pillow in 
those lawless days, some 100 or so years ago, would be no child's play. The firm is now one of the 
first in its particular line of business, owning and running 4 mills of their own in various parts of 
the country. 

Mr. W. SMART, Chemist. 27, Aldgate. This business has been established some 150 years, 
and the house was known by the sign of "The Golden Head," which sign is still to be seen in the 
front of the premises, the present proprietor has administered to the wants of the neighbourhood for 
45 years. 

Messrs. AVERN, SONS & BARRIS, Cork Merchants, 154, Minories. Established close on 
100 years. 

Messrs. BUCKNALL & SONS, Cork Merchants, 22, Crutched Friars, established 
114 years, probably more; the name then being J. Bucknall and the address 31, Crutched Friars. 
This was the original family from which the numerous other businesses bearing the same name have 
sprung, including that large concern known as the Bucknall Line of Steamers. Their premises, as 
before noted, are upon the ground occupied by the Priory of the Crouched Friars. 

Messrs. BARHAM & MARRIAGE, Tea Dealers, 14, Aldgate (see our frontispiece). This 
business has been established some 70 years. 

PEARSE MORRISON, late Morrison & Sons, Printers and Stationers, 68, Leadenhall 
Street, established 85 years, have been in the immediate neighbourhood all the time, have always 
been closely identified with civic work. The present head of the tirm is the Deputy of the Ward 
of Aldgate. The Firm's factory in Heneage Lane is upon the grounds of a part of the old Priory 

— 64 — 

R. S. MENDEY, io6, Fenchurch Street. This business was established some 162 years ago 
by Mr. Phineas Pateshall who, in partnership with Mr. Brown and Mr. J. Law Jones, carried on a 
large Tallow Melting business at 112, Fenchurch Street. They were succeeded by a son of 
Mr. Law Jones, whose descendants still own the premises. Mr. R. S. Mendey was an apprentice to 
Messrs. Pateshall & Jones. 

Messrs. JOHN POUND & Co., 81-84, Leadenhall Street, Leather Goods Manufacturers, 
established 81 years. This firm was established by the father of the present Lord Mayor in 1823 
(some say it was some years before). It was, however, a flourishing City business under the name of 
Pound & Tasker at that date. Mr. Tasker died about 1857. when Mr. Pound admitted his two sons 
into partnership. Mr. Alderman John Pound is the surviving brother, and the business, under the 
joint management of himself and his two sons, Mr. J. Lulham Pound and Mr. Percy H. Pound (his 
partners), has developed into one of the largest of its kind in the kingdom. During the 81 years or 
more it has been established it has absorbed many other businesses, and has now three large factories 
and eight distributing warehouses. The original premises of Pound & Tasker are to be found in 
the interesting picture on page 71. 

Messrs. ASHBY & HORNER, 7, Aldgate, Builders and Contractors. This business has been 
established probably some 150 years. It was in the hands of a Mr. John Search for many years up to 
his death, which occurred in 1784, when he left it to his old apprentice, James Bridger, who was for 
years an Aldgate worthy, and after many years of industry became wealthy and was at one time 
Master of the Drapers' Company. The business was carried on by his sons and became one of much 
importance, employing at times a large number of work-people. The present partners are descendants 
of the above-mentioned James Bridger. 

Messrs. HOE & Co., 34, Duke Street, Packing Case Makers, established about 90 years. 
This was at one time a business occupying considerable premises at 44, 45 and 46, Leadenhall Street, 
where Africa House now stands. Originally established in 18 15. They make a speciality of 
Boxes for the conveyance of bullion, and have amongst their customers some of the most important 
concerns in London. 

Messrs. SAMUEL TULL & Co., 12, Creechurch Lane, Rope, Line, Twine and Net 
Makers, established over 164 years. Originally at the sign of the *' Peter Boat " (after the Apostle 
Peter), on Fish Street Hill, from there to 153, Fenchurch Street, and then for many years at 
97, Leadenhall Street. They have a large number of customers of long standing — many of whom 
are of the same old school as themselves, the beginning of whose accounts go back for generations. 

Mr. A. GOODEVE, Bootmaker, 74, Mark Lane, established over 100 years. His father 
and grandfather carried on same business from 1805 in the neighbourhood ; see incident connected 
with riot on page 17. 

From an old and valued authority. 


Fenchurch St. and Leadenhall St. in 1838, 

(Being the year of Queen < Vidoria , s Coronation)* 

This set of very unique and interesting engravings from the Guildhall Collection will 
appeal to all who admire the painstaking methods of our forefathers. It is to he remembered 
that there was in those days no process engraving, but all was done by hand, and that 
every house in both streets has been faithfully portrayed. Unfortunately, the work being 
so fine, the reproductions are not so distinct as could be wished. A Directory shewing also 
the inhabitant of every house is to be found in the following pages. 

It will be noted that some few of the small openings or alleys have been either renamed 
or altered— for instance. Hartshorn Alley was diverted when the present block of buildings 
was erected: the Fenchurch Street end used to be a little further East. 

The following is a complete List of the inhabitants of Fenchurch Street and Leadenhall 
Street in 1838, and is in conjunction with the set of Pictures on pp. 67, 69 and 71 from the 
Guildhall collection, copied by C. Kemp, Manor Park. 


Gracechurch Street (south side). 

1-2 Crosland, Stationer. 


4 Hudson's Bay Company. 

7 Hankey & Co., Bankers. 

8 Wigan, Importer of Isinglass. 

9 Taylor, G., Stationer. 

11 Forst, Tobacconist. 

12 Dixon' & Co., Slop Sellers. 
Us-' Phtlpot Lane. 



5 1 
1 l^ 

Ripps, W. H., Paper Stainer. 
45 & 46, Davison, Newman & Co., Tea 
Lawrence. [Dealers. 

Browne, F., Hair Cutter. 
Tavlor, Bootmaker. 
Oliver, Builder. 
Dixon & Co., Slop Sellers. 
Harden, Stationer. 
Russell, Bootmaker. 

Star Court. 



Smith, W. J., Tailor and Hatter. 
Polden & Morton. 
Tinnings, Hosier. 
Langbourn Chambers. 
Colver, E., Engraver. 
Nicoll, R., Tea Dealer. 
Harman, C. H. 
Horder, Chemist. 
Mr. Lucas. 

Palmer, Delafosse & Co., Druggists. 
Morrison, Bookseller. 
Rood Lane. 
24-25 Thompson & Barker, Seedmen. 
26 Hanvood, J. & F., Stationers. 
Marriott, \V. & L, Jewellers. 
MofTatt & Co., Bakers. 
Powel, H. 

Grand Collier Dock Co. 
Deraux & Co., General Merchants. 
Snelling, Oilman. 
Tvmes, T., & Weston. 
Watre & Co. 

Barnes & Thornton, Auctioneers. 
Borradile, Son & Ravenhill. 
Suter & Voysey, Architects. 
Franks, VV. C, Tea Broker. 
Barker & Nephew. 
Ellis & Son, Auctioneers. 
Compton, Pewterer. 
McLeod & Co., Wine Merchant-. 
Holland & Co. 
Bennett, J., Dentist. 
Becket, Bootmaker. 
Mincing Lane. 


3 1 

3 2 

3 l 
3 6 



53 Payne, '* King's Head " Tavern. 

54 Brown, T., Surgeon. 
54 Cannew, Wine Vaults. 

Usr Mark Lane. 

56 Sharp & Son, Tea Dealers. 

57 Johnson, Renny & Milman, Indigo 

58 [Merchants. 

59 Hart & Son, J., W r ine Merchants. 

fcsr* London Street. 

60 Harris & Duplex, Surgeons. 

62 Dockerell & Duchesne, Tea Dealers. 

63 W 7 hitton, Merchant. 

64 Hutchinson, Gentleman. 

65 Hart, Plumber. 

66 Finlay, Tailor. 
Ls " Church Row. 

67 Bishop, W. J., "India Arms," W 7 ine 


68 Lamount, Stewart &Co., Wine Merchants 


70 Vaughan, Merchant. 

East India Warehouses. 
fcsr* Northumberland Alley. 

78 Bamfield, Saddler. 

79 Cook, N., Cheesemonger. 

80 Tile & Green, Warehousemen. 

81 Orrit, (\, Cork Cutter. 

82 Willard, H. ("Grapes 1 '), Wine Merchant. 


84 Gill ("George"), Wine Merchant. 

85 Cornish, Baker. 

86 Lewellen, Leoparll, Coffee House. 
l^r George Yard. 

Aldgate Pump (north side). 

87 Wilson, Samuel, China and Glass Ware- 

























UULJ^. j, 














8 9 

9 1 



Butler, Engraver. 

Earl, Hair Cutter. 

Ady, G. R. H., Truss Maker. 

Smith, W., Butcher. 

Wilson, Plumber. 

Evans, Milliner. 

London Society for the Prevention 

Juvenile Prostitution. 
Kent, Fishmonger. 
Whitehorn, " Angel " Wine Vaults. 



fcsr* Hartshorn Alley. 

95 Cobham's Pelican Coffee House. 

96 Dawning, Corn Chandler. 

97 Bridgers, Bricklayer. 
98-99 Hinde, Druggist. 

100 Gatward, Haberdasher. 

Eccles, C., Printer. 

Munt, Dyer. 
103 Roach, Tea Dealer. 
105 Munn, Carpenter. 
105 Kitchen, Telescope Maker. 

105 Salmon, Working Optician. 

106 Passingham & Nail, Wine Merchants. 

106 Commercial Dock Co. 

107 Laing, Mr., Solicitor. 

107 Davis, H., Tobacconist. 
Issr* Fenchurch Buildings. 

108 Atkinson, Russian Merchant. 

109 Barnes & Co., T., Ironmongers. 

no Taylor & Fisher, Appraisers and Under- 

111-112, Pateshall, Brown & Jones, Tallow 

113 McKinnell & Co., Wine Merchants. 

114 Robinson, Stationer. 

Isr- Billiter Street. 

116 Wade & Son, Cotton Brokers. 

117 Hales, Wire worker. 
Ironmongers' Hall. 

Usf Fishmonger Alley. 

118 Eaton, William, Wine Vaults. 

Vsf Calver Court. 

Meedy, Hair Cutter. 

Steam Packet Office. 

Cruickshank, West India Merchant. 

Shaw, E. Stationer. 

Williams & Co., R., Woollen Warehouse. 

Dawson, Dealer in Isinglass. 

Magnus, Stationer. 



Lsr* Tabernacle Court. 




13 l 

Pollock, Chemist. 

Kilby & Co. 
Henderson, R. & T. 
Heath, T., Wine Merchant. 
Gordon & Leith. 
Broughton, Cutler. 

Cullum Street. 

Schilling & Boys, Tobacconists. 
Foster & Whistler. 

Shouls, Plumber. 

140 Miller, Baker. 

141 Fleet, T. 

142 Hoggart, R., Saddler 

143 Baker, J. 

144 Eaton, W., Wine Vaults. 

145 Baily, Brush Maker. 

147 Green ley. 

148 Pickering, Tea Dealer. 
Howford Buildings. 

149 Sully, Bootmaker. 

150 Pitman, Forman & Co. 

151 Pritchard & Cornthwaite, Rice Merchants. 

152 Hall, Ironmonger. 

153 Tull, Rope and Twine Manufacturer. 

154 Kitson, J., Saddler. 

154 Walling, Wine Merchant. 

155 Lindo & Co., Indigo Merchants. 

Isr' Paul's Head Court. 

155 Southey & Cuthbert, Stationers. 

156 Bennett, Silversmith. 
Mitre Chambers. 

158 Tabor, Druggist. 

159 The London, Newcastle & South Shields 

General Shipping Co. 

161 W T ard, Dealer in Fringe. 

162 Brewer, Tailor. 

163 Binckes & Co., Tea Dealers. 

l^r" Blue Anchor Court. 

164 Cowran B. & S., Hosiers. 

165 Monnery, General Outfitter. 

166 Hayes, C. IX, Junr. Floor Cloth Mfr. 

167 Cave, China and Glass Warehouse. 
L*sr" Ingram Court. 

168 Kennington & Golden, Stationers. 

169 Welsley. 

170 Fa veil, Beddowe & Co., Woollen Drapers. 

171 Gaun & Co., Hosiers. 

172 Harris, E., Baker. 

173 Turner, Watchmaker. 

174 Orger & Co., Stationers. 


Bishopsgate Street. 

1 Bouts & Ellis, Leather Warehouse. 

1 Laird, J. W., Fancy Stationer. 

2 Chapman, J. & Co., Merchants. 

3 Hall, J. & S., Outfitters. 

4 Mechi, Inventor of the Magic Strop. 

5 Gowland, F., Watch Manufacturer. 

6 Wilmott, J., Seedsman and Florist. 

6 Alexander & Co., Stationers & Publishers. 
Leaden Hall Market. 

7 Allen & Co., W. H., Booksellers and 


8 Parbury & Co., Oriental Herald Office. 

9 Black Boy and Camel Booking Office. 

10 Reid, D., Fancy Biscuit Baker. 

11 Prince & Co., J., Outfitters and Slop 

East India House. 

21 Samuel, IL, Tobacco & Snuff Warehouse. 

22 Wix & Son, Oilmen. 

24 Simpson, W\, Tailor and Draper. 

25 Dodd, P. G., Jeweller and Miniature 



•dHfld HJ.V9CTTV 


hrt • 






























26 Twopenny Post Office. 

26 Collins, fe., Confectioner. 

27 Watson, F. A., Pens, Quills, etc. 

28 Wheeler & Dupein, Auctioneers. 

29 Spearing, G., Dyer and Scourer. 

30 Fraser, II. W., Alexander & Co., Mer- 


31 Minerva Printing Office. 

32-33 Newman & Co., A. K., Publishers. 

34 Kennington, T., Oil & Colour Merchants. 

35 Edinburgh and London Steam Shipping 


36 Fisher, E., Carver and Gilder. 

37 Hulse & Co., R., Chemists & Druggists. 

38 Jackson, J. & W., Slop Sellers. 

to* Billiter Street. 

42 Locker, H. W., Cutler. 

43 Garland, J. Wine Merchant. 

44 Hoe, Richard, Carpenter. 

45 Hobson, J., Ale and Porter Merchant. 

46 Gostling & Co., W., Ironmongers. 

47 Bourne, J., Bootmaker. 

48 Mosely, E., Watchmaker & Tobacconist. 

Usr" East India House Court. 
Ics - * Sugar Loaf Court. 

50 Pichard, W. D., Oilman. 

51 Ross, R., "Cock" Tavern Booking Office. 
Jews' Synagogue. 

53 Rowland, C, Watch and Clock Mir. 

54 Shuter, J., Fruiterer. 

55 Perring, VV., Baker. 

56 Saunders & Chalmers, Woollen Drapers. 

57 Mulliens, W., Auctioneer. 

58-59 Moses, Myers & Co., Brustle Merchants. 

60 Hill, J., Operative Chemist. 

61 Humphreys, Charles, Surveyor. 

62 Butts, William, Glove Manufacturer. 

63 Andrade, S., Furrier. 

Ls^ Angel Court. 

64 Tasker & Pound, Trunk Makers. 

65 Jackson & Sons, H., Bootmakers. 
Lff-' Hartshorn Alley. 

66 Mayers, H., Looking Glass Frame Mfr. 

67 Honner, T., Tailor and Draper. 

68 Foster, G., Stationer and Bookseller. 

68 Grey, J. T., Goldsmith. 

69 Crosby & Valentine, Importers of Toys. 

69 Blissett, Isaac, Gunsmith. 

70 Brown, T., Tailor. 

71 Thurnell, W., Upholsterer. 
Usr Aldgate Pump. 

(north side). 

72 Jordan, A., Straw and Chip Hat Mfr. 
74 Thomas, T., Confectioner. 

Smart's Buildings. 

76 Mechin, G., Cutler. 

77 Abrahams, H., Silversmith. 

78 Dutton, F. G., Ironmonger. 

79 Yole, W., Practical Optician. 

80 Hood, C, "Bull's Head." 

81 Pound & Tasker, Trunk Makers. 

82 Brown & Co., Oilmen. 

8^ Fitch, Thomas, Cheesemonger. 
84 Turner, J., Music Warehouse. 
Cree Church. 

86 Wade, W. J. Carver and Gilder. 

87 Edwards, J., Ham and Beef Shop. 

89 Dentin, R., Paper Stainer. 

90 Colwell, II., Truss Maker. 

91 Pallatt, T., Scale Maker. 

92 Cross, E. II., Engraver and Printer. 

93 Phillips, L., Bootmaker. 

94 Swatman, R., Coffee House. 

95 McDowall, Printer. 

96 Rid & Sons, Cheesemongers. 

98 Fitch & Co., Wholesale Cheesemongers. 

99 Osmond, R. & S., Dyers. 

100 Edmonds, H., Saddler. 

101 Alexander, J., Manufacturer of Musical 


102 Walkenshaw & Co., Merchants. 

103 Jones, T., Decorative Painter. 

104 Hails, J. C, Fancy Stationer. 

105 Huggins, W. J., Marine Painter. 

106 Crawley, F. S., Modeller. 
East India Warehouses. 

no Rolfe, J., Tailor. 

112 Crichton, John, Optician. 

113 Brock, Hair Cutter. 

114 Muddell, J. A., Silversmith. 

115 Merrett, Mr., Surgeon. 

116 Massey, B., Silversmith. 
Andrew Undershaft. 

117 Vandome & Co., Scale Makers. 

118 Noble & Co., R., Tailors. 

119 Appleton, J., "Hercules." 

1 20- 1 21, Everington, G., Hosiery & Warehouse. 

122 Porch, J., "King's Arms'' Inn. 

123 Hill, J., Cook and Confectioner. 

124 Venison, H., Perfumer and Hair Cutter. 

125 Wilt, J., Wine and Spirit Merchant. 
126-127, Davis & Co., Oilmen. 

128 Boucher & Co., Potters and Glassmen. 

" Ship " Tavern, Whitelock, H. 
130 Payne, W., Trunk Maker. 

132 Foster & Chipperfield, Tea Warehouse. 
fcsr- Shaft Alley. 

133 Ward, C, Tobacco & Snuff Manufacturer. 

134 Welch, J. D., Merchant. 

135-136, St. George Steam Packet Company. 

137 Wright, J., Boarding. House. 

138 Fernic, J., Accountant. 

•139 Simpson, H., Tailor and Draper. 

140 Shuttleworth & Stamper, Chemists and 


141 Mitchell, Thomas. 

142 Griffin & Co., Silversmiths. 

143 Nightingale, G., Carver and Gilder. 

144 Glover, Shelley & Carter, Goldsmiths. 

144 Kersby, Hughes & Thomas, Solicitors. 

145 Ellice, Kinnear & Co., Merchants. 
146-147, Wellsford, W„ Tailor. 

147 Whiteworth & Gilbie, Merchants. 

148 Gilbert, W., Mathematical Instrument 


149 Ager & Fisher, Hair Cutters. 
150-151, "Bull" Inn, J. Taylor. 

152 Corser & Co., R., Grocers. 

153 Robinson, E., Trunk Maker. 

156 Cole, T., Stationer. 

157 Norie & Co., J. W., Navigation Ware- 


158 Mame & Co., Floor Cloth Manufacturers. 

















. I 

* & 




| ,1*. 

tt^t * 


lii % 




. * 












* | 

W "5 
Q 3 









:M'!"fWg = 

» d 



Aldgate's Lord Mayors, 

And some events during their several Years of Office* 

* * * * * 

SIR FRANCIS JONES (Haberdasher), elected Lord Mayor, 1620* 
During his year of office the citizens were so exasperated at the influence which 
Gondomar* the Spanish Ambassador, had over the King (James I.) that they 
assaulted one of his servants in Fenchurch Street* At which His Majesty was 
so enraged* that he came in person to Guildhall* and not only reprimanded the 
Lord Mayor and the other Magistrates for the insolence of the populace* but 
threatened to restrain them by military power; and one person was, by order 
of the King* cruelly whipped the next day from Aldgate to Temple Bar. 

SIR HUGH HAMMERSLEY (Haberdasher), elected Lord Mayor* 1627. 
This was the early part of the reign of Charles I., and during his year of office 
the Officials of the Corporation were in constant conflict with the Crown* 
particularly upon the subject of the King's efforts to raise money from the City 
either by loan or tax* 

SIR JOHN GAYER (Fishmonger), elected Lord Mayor* 1646* at the 
time when the War between the Royal and Parliamentary patty was at 
white heat. Cromwell was victorious throughout the country — opinion in the 
City was much divided, but mostly in favour of the Royalists. Cromwell and 
his generals sent a letter to the Lord Mayor and Common Council menacing the 
City if it should attempt to oppose them by force* Both Houses of Parliament 
dispatched letters to Cromwell desiring that the army might not advance within 
twentyfive miles of the City; strong guards were placed round the City, as the 
army threatened to come nearer* but after a time friendly relations existed 
between the various parties, and London saw little of active hostilities* 

The Corporation refused to obey the commands of Parliament "for 
conscience sake/' and would not make a grant of money for a levy of troops to 
intimidate the citizens and take away their liberties, as well as to bring about 
the overthrow and death of the King. Summoned to appear at Westminster to 
answer for his refusal. Gayer boldly made reply* "I cannot obey commands 
which are not legal." Together with one of the Sheriffs and three Aldermen 
who stood by him. he was committed to the Tower. He was* however, shortly 
released* He did not long survive this but died the following year* a few months 
after the King had been beheaded. He it was who founded the " Lion Sermon " 
now preached annually at St* Katherine Cree. 

SIR THOMAS ANDREWS (Leatherseller), Lord Mayor for two years* 
1649 and 1650-1. 


SIR THOMAS ALLEYNE (Grocer) elected Lord Mayor 1659* During 
his year of office the Lord Mayor and Aldermen went through a most exciting time* 
Charles IL had written them a letter promising the city various favours and 
privileges in return for their help if they would assist him in his restoration* 
The citizens were so elated at this that they gave the messenger £300* and 
the Common Council deputed sixteen commissioners to proceed to Holland with a 
present of £10,000 to His Majesty, who made his entry into London shortly after, 
and was proclaimed King at the usual places in the presence of the Lord 
Mayor, Aldermen and Sheriffs. 

SIR SAMUEL DASHWOOD (Vintner), elected Lord Mayor, 1702. 
Queen Anne visited St. Paul's in full state to render thanks for victory over the 
French. The citizens exerted their utmost abilities to render that day more 
pompous and brilliant than had ever been done on any other occasion. His 
daughter became the wife of the fifth Lord Brooke, and an ancestor of the present 
Earl of Warwick. 

SIR SAMUEL STANIER (Draper), elected Lord Mayor, 1713. Peace 
proclaimed with France. Both Houses of Parliament attended St. Paul's to 
return thanksgiving, the Queen being too ill to attend. Queen Anne died. 
Accession of George I. 

SIR MICAJAH PERRY (Haberdasher), elected Lord Mayor, 1738. The 
Court of Common Council petitioned Parliament in the matter of the Spanish 
claim to search British Ships, the citizens thinking themselves particularly 
aggrieved* The citizens retaliated by rejecting Sir George Champion, who was 
nominated for the office of Lord Mayor, as he, in his capacity of Member of 
Parliament, had voted against them. Sir Micajah laid the first stone of the 
Mansion House. 

ALDERMAN JOHN BURNELL (Gldber), elected Lord Mayor though 
in his 84th year, 1787. 

Mayor 1799. During his year of office, specie, to the weight of 40 tons, had 
been taken from two Spanish frigates. The first six wagons, each drawn by 
eight horses, arrived at the Bank from Plymouth on December 4th. As they 
passed the Mansion House the Lord Mayor and his household appeared on the 
steps and drank, out of a gold cup, success to the British Navy, the band playing 
"Rule Britannia/* The honest tars, who were riding on the outside of the 
wagons, were not neglected, and in return saluted His Lordship with three 
hearty cheers. He was very wealthy, and interesting anecdotes are related of 
his high play at Brooks's. 


On the return of the subsequent Lord Mayor's procession (loth Nov*, 1800) 
to Blackfriars Pier, the populace took the horses from the carriage of the late 
Lord Mayor (Alderman Combe) and drew him to the Guildhall* Lord Nelson 
attended the banquet* 

ALDERMAN JOHN THOMAS THORP {"Draper), elected Lord 
Mayor 1820. During his year of office an address was presented from the 
Common Council to the King* which deplored the exhaustion of the country by 
excessive expenditure* and openly reprobated the recent proceedings against Queen 
Caroline* A different tone animated an address from the Court of Mayor and 
Aldermen* in which regret was expressed at the propagation of sedition by 
44 infatuated malice and a licentious press* At the Coronation Banquet in 
Westminster Hall according to ancient custom* the Lord Mayor* accompanied by 
twelve citizens* presented the King with wine in a gold cup; and His Majesty 
having drunk* returned the cup to the Lord Mayor as his fee* Queen Caroline's 
funeral procession* on its way to Harwich* was accompanied through the City 
by the Lord Mayor* Was M*P* for the City* and afterwards for Arundel* 

ALDERMAN JOHN HUMPHERY {Tallow Chandler), elected Lord 
Mayor* 1842* During his year of office the Thames Tunnel was opened for 
foot passengers* The birth of Princess Alice furnished occasion for an Address 
of Congratulation from the Common Council* The Common Council shewed 
a lively interest in General Espartero* the exiled Regent of Spain* and voted an 
Address* He was entertained by the Lord Mayor at the Mansion House when 
the Address was presented* 

SIR ANDREW LUSK (Spectacle Maker), elected Lord Mayor* 
1873; created a Baronet* 1874* Raised the Bengal Famine Relief Fund* 
a sum of £25*000 being subscribed in nine days* Freedom of City voted to 
Sir Bartle Frere* Corporation presented to the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh 
plate to the value of 3*000 guineas as a marriage gift* A Ball was given in 
honour of their Royal Highnesses at the Mansion House* Corporation presented 
Sir Garnet Wolseley with the Freedom of the City and a sword of the value of 
100 guineas* The Corporation entertained the Emperor of Russia at the 
Guildhall and presented him with an address* The Czar gave £1,000 to the 
Bishop of London and Lord Mayor* for the poor* A Medal was struck in 
commemoration of the visit* The City Temple was opened* The Corporation 
acquired West Ham Park* The first Hospital Saturday Collection was made* 

FROM THE "CITY TRESS," MAY 2tst> 1904. 

The City's Grand Old Man, Sir Andrew Lusk, can, despite his ninety odd years, give a 
start and a beating to many who are his juniors by two decades. He has been the chairman of 
a certain Assurance Company for a quarter of a century, and until Wednesday last had not 
been absent from a single Annual Meeting. That he is still a real worker his record for last 
year affords clear proof. He was present, in all, at no fewer than 65 meetings of the board. 


ALDERMAN JOHN POUND (Leathersetter), elected Lord 
Mayor, 1904. 


Mr. ALDERMAN POUND reaches the Civic Chair after a long apprenticeship. No fewer 
than 35 years have, in fact, passed since the Alderman commenced his civic career as one of the 
Corporate representatives of the Ward of Aldgate. Throughout his association with the Corporation 
trie Alderman has been prominent in municipal affairs. He has served as chairman of some of the 
principal committees, and has been identified with not a few of the most notable events in the history 
of the Guildhall during the past four decades. 

Amongst the chairs the Alderman has filled in the course of his career is that of the Coal and 
Corn and Finance Committee. His presidency of that important committee was the more appropriate 
in view of the deep interest he took, during a period of ten years, in the movement for the preservation 
of Epping Forest. In this connection it may be said that the Alderman proved a worthy third to 
the late Mr. Deputy Bedford and the late Mr. Whinfield Hora in the long-continued agitation that 
was carried on preceding the placing on the Statute Book of ihe Act which gave Epping Forest to 
the public as a lung for all time. The part he played in this direction the Alderman regards as one 
of his principal accomplishments in municipal life. Another chair occupied by the Alderman was 
that of the City of London School — a position, it is of interest to note, that has since been held with 
like success by his son, Mr. John Lulham Pound. The Alderman's year of office was rendered 
memorable by the carrying in Court of the report recommending the presentation to the school of 
the site on the Embankment, and the erection of the magnificent building that now forms the head- 
quarters of the famous John Carpenter Institution. 

The Alderman acted as a member on the floor of the Court from the year 1869 until 1892. 
In the latter year Sir Andrew Lusk resigned his Aldermanic gown in order to retire to the less 
responsible position of Alderman of Bridge Without. Mr. Alderman Pound was unanimously elected 
to the position thus vacated. Now that he has reached the highest position it is in the power of a 
citizen to occupy, he enjoys the esteem and regard, with good wishes for a successful year of office, 
of one and all of his constituents. The Alderman served the Shrieval office in the year 1895. 
The election was an exciting one, a determined effort being made to secure the return of two lay 
Sheriffs. The friends of the Alderman rallied round him with such strong force, however, that he 
was returned by a substantial majority at the head of the poll. To the events cf the Shrievalty it is 
needless to refer, as they are still fresh in the memory of all who are closely associated with civic life. 
It will be sufficient to state that at the end of the twelvemonth the Sheriffs retired with the full 
confidence of their constituents, and were accorded a vote of thanks warmly expressive of the Livery's 
appreciation of the services tbey had rendered. 

Closely associated with his Corporation career is the Alderman's kinship with the guilds of 
London. The Leathersellers' Company he claims as his parent guild. Of that company he has 
served as master twice, the second term of office having only just drawn to a termination. In this 
connection it is of interest to note that a magnificent oil-painting of the Alderman in his Shrieval 
robes now occupies a prominent position on the walls of Leathersellers' Hall. The Lord Mayor- 
Elect is also a past-master of the Fan Makers and Fruiterers' Companies. 

Coming to the more personal details of the Alderman's career, it may be noted first of all 
that he is, in the true sense of the term, a citizen bred and born. In this respect he fulfils the 
time-honoured traditions of the City. He was born in the year 1829 at 81, Leadenhall Street, and 
resided there and at an adjoining house for upwards of 30 years. He takes pride in the fact that he 
is a Blue-coat boy. 

The Alderman received his nomination to the school, it may be noted, from the then 
Alderman of the Aldgate Ward, Mr. John Humphery, who served the Mayoral office in the year 1842. 
Many of those who were contemporaries of the present Lord Mayor-Elect at Christ's Hospital have 
since made a name for themselves in various walks of life. One with whom the Alderman was 
especially intimate will be remembered by Paulines as a master of the noted Dean Colet's School, 
Mr. Hudson. He, by the way, was the Alderman's monitor in Newgate Street. Dr. Rice was the 
head-master of the Newgate Street foundation at that time ; Mr. S. S. Dipnall, afterwards the clerk, 
was even then on the clerical staff in the counting-house ; and the Rev. J. A. L. Airey, M.A., the 
rector of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, was also associated with the hospital in an official position. The 
interest the Alderman takes in his Alma Mater may be judged from the fact that he is a Corporation 
Governor of the Hospital, and a member of the several societies that serve as connecting links 
between the past and the present. 

On leaving Newgate Street, the Alderman entered his father's business in Leadenhall Street, 
becoming in due course a partner of the firm. To-day he is at the head of affairs, but, naturally, the 
pressure of municipal responsibility compels him to delegate the chief responsibility to the two sons 
associated with him — Mr. John Lulham Pound, C.C., and Mr. Percy H. Pound. The Alderman may 
be said to have served all the various parochial offices in the ward. He has acted as overseer, 


Churchwarden, and Guardian of St. Katharine Cree and St. James 1 , Duke's Place. He was the 
treasurer and is now the president of the Aldgate Ward Schools— an Institution which has just 
ceased to exist as a separate entity, having, in a great measure through the passing of the Education 
Act, been amalgamated with the Sir John Cass Institution. The Alderman is a Commissioner of 
Property and Income Tax and Land and Assessed Taxes for the City, while he also holds various 
other appointments more or less closely associated with municipal work. He is, in addition, 
an active worker in the cause of charity, and at one time and another has participated in the manage- 
ment of a number of well-known philanthropic institutions. Within the past few weeks he has been 
elected a Donation Governor of St. Bartholomew's Hospital — a fact proving his interest in the 
Rahere Foundation, and his desire to forward its welfare in every possible direction. 

In commercial circles the Lord Mayor-Elect is known as the Chairman of the London 
General Omnibus Company, a position he has held since the year 1879. He married in the year 1856 
Miss Harriet Lulham, the daughter of Mr. Thomas Lulham ; and their family consists of three 
daughters, and the two sons to whom reference has been made. The Alderman is a Conservative in 
politics, and a member of the City Carlton Club ; and a staunch Churchman. 

FROM THE " CITY PRESS," JUNE I5th 9 1904. 
Twenty-two years have passed since the forest was dedicated to the use of the public 
for ever bv Queen Victoria. To-day. of the members then constituting the committee, there is 
but one still in the Corporation. That survivor is Mr. Alderman Pound. A suggestion may 
not be out of place in this connection. The Alderman should be invited by the Committee to 
pay a State visit to the forest during his year of office as Lord Mayor. There would be an especial 
appropriateness in such a ceremony in view of the great personal interest the Alderman has taken all 
along in the forest. 


WILLIAM STAUNDON i392-3# 1407-8. 

ROBERT CHICHELE 1401-2, 1421-2. 


Sir JOHN RUDSTONE 1528-9. 

Sir WILLIAM HOLLYES i539'4<>. 


Sir MARTIN BOWES, elected Lord Mayor, 1545. It is recorded that 
he lent Henry VIII.. who was always in want of money, £300. He attended 
the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth, and left to the Goldsmiths 9 Company his 
gold fee cup, out of which her Majesty drank. 

Sir JOHN GRESHAM, elected Lord Mayor, 1537. He was brother 
to Sir Richard Gresham, the father of the founder of the Royal Exchange. 



SIR DAVID SALOMONS (Cooper), was elected Sheriff in 1835* being 
the first Jew ever raised to the office. He was elected Alderman for Aldgate, but 
the election was declared void for his refusal to take the oaths. He afterwards 
became Alderman for Cordwainer, and was Lord Mayor in 1855 — the first Jew 
to hold that office also. He suppressed the Guy Fawkes rejoicings which were 
an annual City nuisance. He was M.P. for Greenwich, and died in 1873, full of 
honors and much respected. 

SAMUEL THORP was for more than 50 years in the Common Council 
for Aldgate. He was father of the court, and three times declined the Aldermanic 
Gown. Died 1823, aged 82. 


Roman & Other Remains, 

Found in or near Aldgaie. 



In 1576. — A pavement at the Leadenhall Street end of Lime Street at 
a depth of 12 feet. 

In 1787. — A pavement was found in Crutched Friars, and another in 
Northumberland Alley. 

In 1803. — In Leadenhall Street, near where the P. & O. offices now stand, 
was found a magnificent specimen of Roman pavement. It was some twenty 
feet square, and is one of the most beautiful specimens of Roman Mosaic work 
ever found in England. 

In 1842* — A curious group of three figures of Roman goddesses, bearing 
baskets of fruit in their laps, was discovered in digging a sewer in Hart Street, 
Crutched Friars. The group is now in the Guildhall Museum. 

In 1845. — In Petticoat Lane, 17 feet below the roadway, was found a torso 
of a white marble statue of a slinger. 

In 1863* — A pavement was found near the portico of the then India House 
in Leadenhall Street. 

A fine statue of a youth was found some years ago in Bevis Marks and 
rescued from the employes of the Commissioners of Sewers by Mr. Roach Smith. 

The authorities of the Guildhall Museum have just succeeded in obtaining 
a complete Roman interment, recently unearthed in Great Alie Street, a turning 
out of Mansell Street, Aldgate. It consists of a large amphora, which Mr. Welch, 
at the Guildhall, says was used by the Romans to contain wine or water, and 
that this particular specimen is at least 1,500, probably 1,800, years old. The neck 
and shoulders have been cut off, and a cinerary urn with a patera — or shallow 
dish~covering — have been inserted. The urn contains bones, which when found 
were white and hard, owing to the intense heat at cremation. 

Roman remains were found in excavations for Fenchurch Street Station, 
and for Messrs* M. Samuel & Co/s premises in Houndsditch. About 5 years 
ago some very fine specimens of ancient pottery were found when excavating for 
the foundations of 64, Leadenhall Street, which are now preserved on the 
premises of the Chesney Restaurant. 

Remains of Roman Pottery were found when excavating the foundations 
of Coronation House, Lloyd's Avenue. 

Description of the Invitation Ticket 

to the Guildhall Banquet. November 9th, 1 904. 

HE INVITATION TICKET to the Banquet at the 
Guildhall, on the 9th November, 1904, consists of a 
reproduction in colours of an Architectural design in 
the Grecian style with Corinthian and Ionic Capitals, 
and a series of panels ; the whole worked out in Grecian 
Ornamentation. At the head, in the centre, are the City Arms supporting 
those of the Lord Mayor ; in the top left-hand panel is a view of the 
ancient Priory of the Holy Trinity, Aldgate ; in the top right-hand panel 
are sketches of The Baltic, The Trinity House, and the Office of Lloyd's 
Register, all of which are in the Lord Mayor's Ward. In the left-hand 
side panel are the Arms of Mr. Alderman and Sheriff T. Vezey Strong, 
with a view of the Royal Port of Queenhithe, and below are the Arms 
of his parent Company, The Stationers. In the right-hand side panel are 
the Arms of Mr. Sheriff G. J. Woodman, J.P., with a view of Moorgate, 
and below are the Arms of his parent Company, The Framework Knitters. 
In the centre panel, at the foot, are depicted the Arms of the Lord Mayor's 
Companies ; The Leathersellers, The Fan Makers and The Fruiterers, 
upon a background shewing a landscape view of Epping Forest. In a 
panel at the left-hand side of this is found a sketch of the City of London 
School. With both of these the Lord Mayor has been associated during 
his civic career. On the right of this centre panel is a sketch of Aldgate. 

The production of the Ticket has been carried out by : 

Messrs. Eden Fisher & Company, Limited, 95 to 97, Fenchurch Street, 

in the Ward of Aldgate, City of London. ::::::::: 



6, 7 and 8, Clements Lane, Lombard Street, 

95. 96 and 97, Fenchurch Street, 

3*, 33, 34, 35 and 36, Mitre Street, 






Or 4tT1.1t 

•A •» Ward or JUdpM t 

*ry 0OS55MQ5 

3 2044 081 208 423